IPM Manual for Structural Pests in British Columbia
Why This Manual was Prepared
This manual was prepared to help structural pest control operators in British Columbia to adopt an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach. The British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks is promoting the adoption of IPM and alternatives to pesticides. The goal is to ensure that all pesticides are used only within an IPM program. This means that pesticides are used only when necessary and in ways that minimize possible impacts on people and the environment.
The basis for structural IPM programs is preventing pest problems through sanitation, building repair and maintenance and exclusion of pests. Pesticides are just one of the many different types of controls used in IPM programs. They are only used when a monitoring program shows they are necessary. Effective IPM programs aim at providing long-term solutions to pest problems because they correct the conditions that made a pest outbreak possible.
This manual describes the basic principals of IPM and gives examples of IPM programs for specific pests. It is intended to be a training manual as well as a reference guide for pest managers. The manual may also serve as a guide for clients of pest control services who want to know about pest management options. Pest control service companies might want to show this manual to their clients to acquaint them with an IPM approach.
This manual is not intended to provide complete IPM prescriptions for specific pests because IPM programs must be tailored to fit each site and to meet the needs of individual clients. The IPM outlines in Section 2 are provided as examples to demonstrate the decision making process that should be used in all pest management programs.
A recent survey of subscribers conducted by a structural pest control industry journal found that:
- 72.4% thought the pest control industry needed IPM to adequately control pest populations safely and effectively.
- 62.5% indicated customers seemed more willing to accept suppression of pest populations using less toxic or non-toxic methods.
- 78.9% thought the average pest control operator did not understand what is meant by IPM.
This indicates there is a great deal of interest and acceptance of IPM methods. It is also clear, however, that pest control operators, or pest managers as they are called in this manual, need much more information on IPM programs. That is why we have produced this manual.
From: Pest Control Technology. Nov. 1995. 23(11): 36.
Successful, long-term control of structural pests requires a thorough knowledge of pest biology and of the different types of controls. This manual describes the basic knowledge required by a pest control operator to conduct an IPM program for common B. C. pests. Candidates studying for pesticide applicator certification will be expected to have a good understanding of this basic biology. The information in this manual, however, should really be seen as a starting point. Useful references recommended for further information are listed at the end of each chapter in this manual. It is expected that pest managers will expand their knowledge of pest biology beyond the basic requirement and that they will continue to lean about new methods and products for structural pest control. Attending seminars and subscribing to publications to learn about new research is essential. Electronic information sources, such as bulletin board services and the Internet, will also be an increasingly important resource for finding pest management information.
This manual is now included in the study package for pesticide applicator certification in the structural category in B.C. It adds a large IPM component to the training, which will be tested on the certification examination.
This manual was prepared at the request of, and with the participation of, representatives from the B. C. Urban Pest Management Association. Several drafts were developed and edited by experienced pest control practitioners. We hope that we have captured the most useful suggestions, but because this is the first attempt at compiling an IPM training manual for B. C. we expect there will be unforseen omissions and errors. We would appreciate receiving comments that will help us improve future editions of this manual.
How the Manual is Organized
This manual is divided into three main sections.
Section 1 Includes chapters 1 and 2. This section describes Integrated Pest Management and the tools for controlling structural pests in an IPM program. The first chapter includes a definition and describes each of the five main components of a complete IPM program. Preventive strategies and controls and how they are applied are also reviewed. The second chapter describes in detail the preferred pest control products currently used in structural IPM programs. Brief descriptions of products not registered for use in Canada at the time this manual was written are included to give pest managers an idea of the type of products to watch for in the future.
Section 2 includes chapters 3 through 11. These chapters outline examples of IPM programs for structural pests commonly found in British Columbia. Subjects covered are ants, cockroaches, fleas, stored product pests, rodents, silverfish & firebrats, termites, powderpost beetles, and birds. Each chapter includes notes on pest identification, monitoring methods, when to take action, prevention and control methods and treatment evaluation.
The intent is not to cover every structural pest in British Columbia in detail, but to provide sample IPM programs. This will enable pest managers to apply ideas from examples in this section to other species of structural pests. Concepts are emphasized throughout the manual because the technical details of IPM programs will change over time.
Section 3 includes chapters 12 and 13. Both contain general information for the safe use of pesticides. Chapter 12 covers safety precautions and handling information for each type of pesticide application used for structural pests and includes a section on communications between pest managers and their clients. The characteristics of pesticides commonly used in structural pest control are covered in chapter 13, including chemical properties, formulations and notes on use.
To Help You Study
In each chapter, there are learning objectives at the beginning and study questions at the end. The learning objectives are there to guide the learning, and the study questions are meant for review. A glossary of terms is included at the end of the manual. It defines technical words that you may not familiar with.
The information in this manual is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and that listing of commercial products, necessary to this handbook, implies no endorsement by the authors or the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Criticism of products or equipment not listed is neither implied nor intended.
Due to the constantly changing labels, laws and regulations, the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks can assume no liability for the suggested use of chemicals contained herein.
No pesticides can be used unless they are registered in Canada for the intended use and bear a Pest Control Product Act registration number. At all times, pesticides must be applied according to the label directions on the pesticide container.
The editors would like to acknowledge the contribution of the following contractors in developing this manual:
Dr. Risa Smith, Vedalia Biological Research
Art Guite, Ridpest Service Ltd.
Al Vaudry and Bob Lucy, Professional Ecological Services
Holly Ridenour, XL Training Plus
Final manual layout and design as well as the version for the Internet was done by
Ian Black Concepts. (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Last, but not least, many thanks are particularly owed to Verne Gilpin, John Van and other members of the Urban Pest Management Association of B.C. who have reviewed various drafts and made many valuable suggestions to improve the text.