Ambient Water Quality Guidelines for Chloride
pursuant to Section 2(e) of the
Cataloguing in Publication Data
Ambient water quality guidelines for chloride
Water quality - Standards - British Columbia. 2. Chloride -
This document is one in a series that establishes ambient water quality guidelines for British Columbia (Table 1). This document is mainly based on a report prepared by the BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, BC Ministry of Transportation and Highways, BC Buildings Corporation and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (Bright and Addison 2002), and a background report prepared for the Canadian Priority Substance List 2 Assessment of the toxicity of the application of road salt to the aquatic environment (Evans and Frick 2001). The guidelines for chloride set forth in this document are intended to protect drinking water, recreation and aesthetics, freshwater and marine aquatic life, agricultural water (irrigation and livestock watering) and wildlife uses. These guidelines are briefly described in the Section on Recommended Guidelines and are discussed in greater detail in the Appendix to the report.
* When ambient
chloride concentration in the environment exceeds the guideline,
The application of road salt for winter accident prevention is an important source of chloride to the environment, which is increasing over time due to the expansion of road networks and increased vehicle traffic. Road salt (most often sodium chloride) readily dissolves and enters aquatic environments in ionic forms. Although chloride can originate from natural sources, most of the chloride that enters the environment is associated with the storage and application of road salt. As such, chloride-containing compounds commonly enter surface water, soil, and ground water during snowmelt.
Chloride ions are conservative, which means that they are not degraded in the environment and tend to remain in solution, once dissolved. Chloride ions that enter ground water can ultimately be expected to reach surface water and, therefore, influence aquatic environments and humans. Among the species tested, freshwater aquatic plants and freshwater invertebrates tend to be the most sensitive to chloride. Recently, the Canadian government classified road salt as toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999).
The Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection develops ambient water quality guidelines for British Columbia. This work has two goals:
The guidelines represent safe conditions or safe levels of a substance in water. A water quality guideline is defined as “a maximum and/or a minimum value for a physical, chemical or biological characteristic of water, sediment or biota, which should not be exceeded to prevent detrimental effects from occurring to a water use under given environmental conditions.”
The guidelines are applied province-wide, but they are use-specific, and are being developed for these water uses:
2 Guidelines relating to public health at bathing beaches will be the same as those developed by the Ministry of Health, which regulates the recreation and aesthetic water use.
The guidelines are established after considering the scientific literature, existing guidelines from other jurisdictions, and environmental conditions in British Columbia. The scientific literature provides information about the effects of toxicants on various life forms. This information is not always conclusive because it is usually based on laboratory work that, at best, only approximates field conditions. To compensate for this uncertainty and to facilitate application of the “precautionary principle”, the guidelines have built-in safety factors that are conservative, but consider natural background conditions in the province.
The guidelines are used to set ambient site-specific water quality objectives for specific waterbodies. In setting the objectives, consideration is also given to present and future water uses, waste discharges, hydrology, limnology, oceanography, and existing background water quality.
In most cases, the objectives are the same as the guidelines. However, when natural background levels exceed the guidelines, the site-specific objectives could be less stringent than the guidelines. In rare instances — for example, if the resource is unusually valuable or of special provincial significance — the safety factor could be increased to support the establishment of objectives that are more stringent than the guidelines. Another approach would be to develop site-specific objectives by conducting toxicity experiments in the field or applying other procedures (MacDonald 1997).
Neither the guidelines nor the objectives derived from them have any legal standing in British Columbia. However, the objectives can be used to calculate waste discharge limits for contaminants. These limits are outlined in waste management permits, orders, and approvals, all of which have legal standing. Objectives are not usually incorporated as conditions of a permit.
Water quality guidelines are subject to review and revision as new information becomes available or as other circumstances dictate.
Chloride compounds include those containing a chlorine atom as a negatively charged anion (Cl-), such as sodium chloride (NaCl). Chlorine3 is a halogen (salt-forming) element with a boiling point of -33.9oC. Chlorine is never found in free form in nature, and occurs most commonly as sodium chloride. Chloride compounds are highly soluble in water4, in which they persist in dissociated form as chloride anions with their corresponding positively charged cations (e.g., sodium).
4 The solubility of sodium chloride is 35.7g/100g water at 0oC.
Chloride is widely distributed in nature, generally in the form of sodium (NaCl) and potassium (KCl) salts; it constitutes about 0.05% of the earth’s outer crust. By far the greatest amount of chloride found in the environment is in the oceans. Salt deposits occur frequently underground were they are mined for various industrial and domestic purposes. The Canadian salt industry produces 12.5 million metric tonnes annually from major rock salt mines in Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick and from vacuum pan refineries in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia; nearly three-quarters of this total is rock salt used primarily for highway de-icing.
The application of road salt for winter accident prevention represents the single largest use of salt in British Columbia and serves as the primary anthropogenic source of chloride to the environment. Sodium chloride is also widely used in the production of industrial chemicals such as caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), chlorine, soda ash (sodium carbonate), sodium chlorite, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium hypochlorite. Potassium chloride is used in the production of fertilizers. In addition to the salting of highways to control ice and snow, other sources of chloride to the environment include dissolution of salt deposits, effluents from chemical industries, oil well operations, sewage, irrigation drainage, refuse leachates, sea spray, and seawater intrusion in coastal areas.
In freshwater, natural background concentrations of chloride are on the order of 1 to 100 mg/L, with maximum observed surficial concentrations in B.C. in the range of 13 to 140 mg/L (Bright and Addison 2002). High concentrations of chloride, related to the use of road salt on roads or released from storage yards or snow dumps, have been measured in ground water adjacent to storage yards, in small ponds and water courses draining large urbanized areas, and in streams, wetlands and lakes draining major roadways. While the highest concentrations of chloride are usually associated with winter and spring thaws, elevated chloride concentrations have also been measured during summer low flow periods.
As part of the CEPA Priority Substances List Assessment, Evans and Frick (2001) compiled information of the level of chlorides in the Canadian environment. The results of that review indicated that chloride concentrations in roadside snow ranged from <100 mg/L to 10,000 mg/L, with concentrations typically in the 4,000 mg/L range. By comparison, snow melt from snow storage dumps had chloride concentration ranges of 300 to 1,200 mg/L. The highest chloride concentrations are typically found in roadside ditches where melt-water is concentrated (highest reported value in Evans and Frick (2001; Table 4-5) was 19,135 mg/L for highway runoff in Ontario). The next highest concentrations (up to 4,310 mg/L) were observed in rivers and creeks in highly populated areas with significant use of road salt. Small lakes and ponds were more strongly affected by road salt than larger lakes, but are not as strongly influenced as creeks or rivers. For most of the small lakes that were sampled, chloride concentrations were below 200 mg/L (Evans and Frick 2001).
Chloride is an essential element for aquatic and terrestrial biota, representing the main extracellular anion in animals, including humans. It is a highly mobile ion that easily crosses cell membranes and is involved in maintaining proper osmotic pressure, water balance, and acid-base balance in animal tissues. Recent studies indicate that the chloride ion also plays an active role in renal function, neurophysiology, and nutrition.
Food represents the principal source of chloride that is consumed by humans. Approximately 0.6 g of chloride per day is ingested in a salt-free diet. Due to the addition of salt to food, the daily intake of chloride averages 6 g and may range as high as 12 g. If one assumes that daily water consumption is 1.5 L and that the average concentration of chloride in drinking water is 10 mg/L, the average daily intake of chloride from drinking water is approximately 15 mg per person, or only about 0.25% of the average intake from food.
Although chloride is an essential element for maintaining normal physiological functions in all aquatic organisms, elevated or fluctuating concentrations of this substance can be detrimental. More specifically, exposure to elevated levels of chloride in water can disrupt osmoregulation in aquatic organisms leading to impaired survival, growth, and/or reproduction. Because excess chloride is most frequently actively excreted from animal tissues via the kidneys or equivalent renal organs to achieve osmoregulatory balance, the bioaccumulation potential of chloride is low. Several factors such as dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature, exposure time and the presence of other contaminants influence chloride toxicity. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the influence of confounding variables on chloride toxicity in aquatic environments.
1. Drinking Water
It is recommended that the total concentration of chloride in drinking water should not exceed 250 mg/L.
Rationale: This guideline was recommended by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to protect the aesthetic qualities of drinking water (CCME 1999). More specifically, the CCME water quality guideline was established because chloride imparts an undesirable taste to water and to beverages prepared from water. In addition, it can cause corrosion in water distribution systems. The taste threshold for chloride varies depending on the associated cation that is present (e.g., sodium, potassium, etc.) and is generally in the range of 200 to 300 mg/L (Health Canada 1996). Chloride concentrations detected by taste in drinking water by panels of 18 or more people were 210, 310 and 222 mg/L for the sodium, potassium and calcium salts, respectively. The taste of coffee was affected when brewed with water containing chloride concentrations of 400, 450, and 530 mg/L from sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride, respectively.
It is unlikely that chloride concentrations found in ambient waters would impair recreational activities, such as, wading or swimming. Therefore, no guideline is recommended for this water use.
Presently, there is no Canadian water quality guideline for chloride for protection of freshwater organisms. Evans and Frick (2001) evaluated the toxicity of chloride to freshwater organisms by stratifying the existing data according to the duration of chloride exposure. For the purposes of guideline derivation below, acute toxicity tests are defined as those in which duration of exposure was less than seven days; toxicity tests of seven or more days in duration are considered to represent chronic exposures.
For exposures of 96 hours, there were 13 studies with fish, seven with cladocerans, and eight with other invertebrates (Appendix 1, Table 1). In general, fish were less sensitive to the effects of chloride than invertebrates. The 96-h LC50s ranged from 1204 to 13,085 mg chloride/L, with a geometric mean of 3940 mg chloride/L.
For chronic exposures, effective (EC50) and lethal (LC50) concentrations of chloride for nine different taxa ranged from 735 mg/L for the cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia, to 4681 mg/L for the Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum (Appendix 1, Table 2).
To protect freshwater aquatic life from chronic effects, the average5 concentration of chloride (mg/L as NaCl) should not exceed 150 mg/L.
Rationale: The recommended water quality guideline was derived by dividing the lowest LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) from a chronic toxicity test by a safety factor of 5. The lowest LOEC for a chronic toxicity test is 735 mg/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (Appendix 1, Table 2); this chloride concentration resulted in a 50% reduction in reproduction over the 7 day test duration. Utilizing this value and following application of a safety factor of five, the chronic guideline is 150 mg/L (rounded to nearest tenth place).
The safety factor of 5 in the derivation of the chronic guideline was justified as follows: (a) Chronic data (Appendix 1, Table 2) available from the literature were scant; (b) in a recent study, Diamond et al. (1992) found a LOEC/NOEC ratio for reproduction of 3.75 in C. dubia exposed to NaCl for 7 days. Also, LC50/LC0 of 3 and LC100/LC0 of 4 were obtained by Hughes (1973), whereas the DeGreave et al. (1991) data yielded LC50/NOEC ratios that ranged from about 1.0 to 6.9; (c) additional protection may be required for those species that are more sensitive but have not yet been tested in the literature.
To protect freshwater aquatic life from acute and lethal effects, the maximum concentration of chloride (mg/L as NaCl) at any time should not exceed 600 mg/L.
Rationale: The guideline for maximum chloride concentration was derived by applying a safety factor of two to the 96-h EC50 of 1204 mg/L for the tubificid worm, Tubifex tubifex (Appendix 1, Table 1), and rounding the number to nearest tenth. Safety factors of two is applied to the acute data because of the relative strength of the acute (Appendix 1, Table 1) data set.
To protect aquatic life in marine environments, human activities should not cause the chloride concentration to fluctuate by more than 10% of the natural background expected at that time and depth.
Rationale: This guideline is an interim guideline that reflects the close relationship between chloride concentration and salinity in marine environments (changes in marine salinity are reflected by equivalent changes in chloride concentration6). Full strength seawater in the Pacific Ocean (Pacific deep water) has salinity about 34 parts per thousand, which is equivalent to a chloride concentration of 18,980 mg/L. Euryhaline organisms can withstand salinity fluctuations, either by tolerating changes in internal osmotic pressure or by maintaining a constant osmotic pressure through osmoregulation.
To protect marine aquatic life in marine environments, human activities should not cause the salinity (expressed as parts per thousand) of marine and estuarine waters to fluctuate by more than 10% of the natural salinity expected at that time and depth. This is consistent with the CCME (1999) interim salinity guideline designed to protect marine and estuarine organisms by avoiding or limiting human-induced fluctuations in the salinity regime. It is also assumed that this guideline will protect natural circulation and mixing patterns of coastal water bodies and thereby limit effects on the physiology and distribution of marine and estuarine organisms associated with such patterns.
The quality guideline for irrigation purposes is 100 mg chloride/L.
Rationale: The CCME (1999) water quality guidelines indicate that sensitive plants should not be irrigated with waters containing > 100 mg chloride/L. In contrast, the CCME (1999) indicates that chloride-tolerant plants can be irrigated with water up to 700 mg chloride/L. The lower of these two values, 100 mg chloride/L, is adopted as the water quality guideline for chloride in irrigation water in British Columbia. Waters with chloride concentrations below the guideline can be used for irrigation on all crops within the province.
The water quality guideline for livestock watering is 600 mg chloride/L.
Rationale: Based on the CCME (1999) water quality guidelines, the concentration of total soluble salts in water used for livestock watering should not exceed 1000 mg/L. Assuming that chloride represents 60% by weight of total soluble salts (e.g., for NaCl), then an equivalent chloride guideline is 600 mg chloride/L. Water with total soluble salt content of less than 1000 mg/L is considered excellent for all classes of livestock. Livestock health may become impaired at total soluble salt concentrations of 1000 to 3000 mg/L.
The chloride concentration in waters that are utilized by wildlife should not exceed 600 mg/L.
Rationale: Although numerical WQGs for the protection of wildlife were not located in the scientific literature, there is no reason to believe that wildlife species would be more sensitive to the effects of chloride than livestock species. For this reason, the WQG for livestock watering was adopted directly as the WQG for the protection of wildlife in British Columbia.
Chloride is ubiquitous in the environment. Its impact on the environment depends upon environmental conditions, including dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature, exposure time, and the presence of other contaminants. These factors should be considered when the water quality guidelines are applied to assess environmental impacts of chloride.
The environmental chemistry of chloride is relatively straightforward. Following the deposition of road salt, these compounds dissociate in the environment into chloride anion and a corresponding cation (usually sodium, since sodium chloride is the predominant form of road salt). Chloride ions enter surface water, soil, and ground water after snowmelt events and remain in solution in freshwater systems.
It is important to carefully consider background levels of chloride in the local aquatic environment and to take these data into consideration when applying the WQGs. For example, in Stuart Lake situated in the upper part of the Fraser River watershed, chloride levels should be very low. Therefore, measured levels of chloride at, or above the WQGs, would likely indicate that anthropogenic sources are contributing to chloride levels and putting ecological receptors at risk. However, background levels of chloride in the lower (tidal) portions of the Fraser River are likely to be highly variable, and influenced by tidal cycles and salt wedge penetration. In this situation, elevated levels of chloride would not necessarily indicate a water quality problem.
In most cases, water quality objectives for chloride will be the same as the guidelines. When concentrations of chloride in undeveloped waterbodies are less than the recommended guidelines, then more stringent values, if justified, could apply. In some cases, socio-economic or other factors (e.g., higher background levels) may justify objectives which are less stringent than the guidelines. To adjust the guidelines recommended here to take local conditions into consideration, the BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks publication, "Methods for Deriving Site-Specific Water Quality Objectives in British Columbia and Yukon" should be followed (MacDonald 1997).
Although sodium chloride is the predominant form of road salt in British Columbia, other cations in addition to sodium (e.g., calcium, magnesium and potassium) can either reduce or enhance the toxicity of chloride in natural water bodies. Complex interactions among sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride ions may play a role in affecting the sensitivity of aquatic species to road salt runoff. Increased salt concentrations can potentially enhance the mobility of trace metals in aquatic ecosystems. Road salts can thus increase the toxicity and adverse environmental impacts of road runoff. Nutrients and organic contaminants may also be carried with road runoff, thereby contributing to stresses on aquatic organisms.
Bright, D.A. and J. Addison. 2002. Derivation of matrix soil standards for salt under the British Columbia Contaminated Sites Regulation. Royal Roads University. Prepared for BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, BC Ministry of Transportation and Highways, BC Buildings Corp., and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Victoria, BC.
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). 1999. Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Evans, M. and C. Frick. 2001. The effects of road salts on aquatic ecosystems. NWRI Contribution Series No. 01-000. National Water Resources Institute. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
Health Canada. 1996. Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality - Sixth Edition. Ottawa, Ontario.
MacDonald, D.D.. 1997. Methods for deriving site-specific water quality objectives in British Columbia and Yukon. British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands, and Parks. Victoria, B.C.
United States Department of Agriculture. 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Agricultural Handbook Number 60. Washington, D.C. (http://www.ussl.ars.usda.gov/hb60/offset/hb60ntro.pdf)
United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1988. Ambient water quality criteria for chloride. Office of Water. Washington, D.C.
Road salts are applied to roadways in B.C. in order to prevent traffic accidents. During wintertime, traffic accidents can be reduced by 20 to 90% when icy and snowy roads are salted and reduced to bare pavement. The use of de-icing agents serves to keep Canadian roadways open and safe during the winter and to minimize traffic accidents, injuries, and mortality under icy and snowy conditions.
Sodium chloride is the most commonly applied road salt in North America. Road salt can be made up of different mixtures of compounds including calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, and potassium chloride. In the environment, salts dissociate into the chloride anion and a corresponding cation. Environment Canada estimated that during the 1997-98 winter, approximately 4,750,000 tonnes of sodium chloride and 110,000 tonnes of calcium chloride de-icers were applied to Canadian roads, resulting in an estimated 2,950,000 tonnes of chloride released to the environment. Of this amount, approximately 94,000 tonnes or road salt were applied in BC, with loading rates between 1 to 3 kg/m2 of salted road.
Ultimately, all road salts enter the environment as a result of:
Releases are therefore associated with both point sources (storage and snow disposal areas) and linear sources (roadway application).
The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) requires that the Ministers of Environment and Health identify substances that may be harmful to the environment or constitute a danger to human health. A substance is considered to be “CEPA toxic” if it is entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that:
Road salt has the potential to adversely affect a wide range of aquatic organisms. Evans and Frick (2001) reviewed the literature on the biological effects of chloride and drew a number of conclusions regarding chloride salt toxicity and effects on aquatic biota. First, tolerance to elevated chloride concentrations decreases with increasing exposure time. Short-term exposures to concentrations of chloride in the hypersaline range (>50,000 mg/L salinity) may kill adult fish and other organisms rapidly (e.g., 15 minutes). As exposure time increases, tolerance to chloride decreases. Tolerance to chloride can be increased through the gradual increases in chloride concentrations, allowing the organism to develop mechanisms for dealing with the osmotic shock and other physiological stresses.
A number of studies reviewed by Evans and Frick (2001) measured the effects of physical variables on salinity tolerance. Aquatic biota are more tolerant of chloride in water in which oxygen concentrations are close to saturation. While some studies suggest that organisms are more tolerant to chloride at lower temperatures, other studies have shown that the reverse is true.
Zooplankton and benthic invertebrates appear to be relatively more sensitive to sodium chloride concentrations than fish. As well, within a given taxonomic category (e.g., benthic invertebrates or fish), there is significant inter-species variation in salinity tolerances.
Potassium chloride tends to be the most toxic salt to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Magnesium chloride is next in toxicity, followed by calcium chloride and then sodium chloride. Fish fry may be more tolerant of elevated concentrations of calcium compared to sodium chloride.
Limited studies have been conducted of the toxicity of road salts and de-icing salts to aquatic organisms. In general, toxicity is within the same general range of that observed for sodium and calcium chlorides. Road salts, by increasing the mobilization of metals, may enhance the toxicity and adverse environmental impacts from road runoff. Nutrients and organic contaminants may also be carried with this runoff, especially from heavily trafficked highways. This can also contribute to stress on aquatic organisms.
Data comparing the toxicity of salt to aquatic organisms were compiled by Evans and Frick (2001). Table 1 shows the measured acute values for various freshwater species exposed to sodium chloride during 96-hour acute toxicity tests. Some of the acute data represent 3-day (72-hour) exposures that were converted into 4-day estimates using a conversion factor as described in Evans and Frick (2001). In total there are 28 observations including fish (13), cladocerans (7), and other invertebrates (8). Invertebrates are more sensitive to chloride (i.e. lower 96-h LC50s) than are fish. Certain fish species (e.g., American eel) show high chloride tolerance, with corresponding high LC50 values. The 96-h LC50s range between 1204 to 13,085 mg chloride/L, with a geometric mean of 4033 mg chloride/L. Sublethal effects (immobilization response) in Tubifex tubifex were observed at the lowest chloride concentration of 474 mg/L. In this particular test, the immobilization response is equivalent to a lethal response, since death was confirmed following transfer of immobile worms back into control tube well water (Khangarot 1995).
The results of chronic toxicity tests conducted on nine freshwater species indicate that chloride can adversely affect aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging from 735 to 4681 mg/L (Table 2). Logistic modeling of chronic toxicity data (Figure 1) indicates that the 5th percentile of the sensitivity distribution for aquatic life occurs at around 213 mg/L Cl-. However, limitations in the available input data restrict the application of this relationship for deriving water quality guidelines. For this reason, Evans and Frick (2001) used the available toxicological data and published acute:chronic ratios to estimate chronic toxicity thresholds for various species of aquatic organisms. The reconstructed species sensitivity distribution was developed by first categorizing the exposure period used in the original studies into < 1 day, 1 day, 4 days, and 1 week. The extent to which these represent chronic versus acute exposure periods depends on the life history of the specific test organism used. Evans and Frick (2001) further standardized the data for exposure period, to reflect longer-term (> 1 week) chronic exposure periods. Based on an acute:chronic ratio of 7.0, the 96-h acute toxicity data were extrapolated to a predicted chronic toxicity threshold, as shown in Figure 2. The predicted community response to chloride is shown in Table 3, which presents the cumulative percentage of species affected by chronic exposures to chloride.
Four jurisdictions have developed water quality criteria for chloride; these criteria are shown in Table 4 and are described below.
3.3.1 State of Kentucky
Birge et al. (1985) recommended that, in order to protect aquatic life and its uses, for any consecutive 3-day period:
Water quality criteria for chloride were developed by USEPA (1988). They concluded that except possibly where a locally important species is very sensitive, freshwater organisms and their uses should not be appreciably affected unacceptably if:
The criterion maximum concentration, 860 mg/L, was obtained by dividing the final acute value, 1,720 mg/L by 2. The criterion continuous concentration, 230 mg/L was obtained by dividing the final chronic value by the final acute:chronic ratio (ACR), 7.594. USEPA (1988) noted that these criteria will not be adequately protective when the chloride is associated with potassium, calcium, or magnesium. Further, they also noted that because animals have a narrow range of acute sensitivities to chloride, excursions above this range might affect a substantial number of species.
CCME (1999) has developed a number of water quality guidelines for chloride, although none are for the protection of aquatic life. These guidelines include:
CCME (1999) has developed an interim water quality guideline for salinity (expressed as parts per thousand) for the protection of marine and estuarine life. Specifically:
Adelman, I.R., L.L.J. Smith and G.D. Siesennop. 1976. Acute toxicity of sodium chloride, pentachlorophenol, guthion, and hexavalent chromium to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33: 203-208.
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Beak International Inc. 1999. Ecotoxicology test results. Unpublished report for M.S. Evans. National Water Research Institute. Saskatoon, SK.
Birge, W.J., J.A. Black, A.G. Westerman, T.M. Short, S.B. Taylor, D.M. Bruser, and E.D. Wallingford. 1985. Recommendations on numerical values for regulating iron and chloride concentrations for the purpose of protecting warm water species of aquatic life in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Memorandum of Agreement No. 5429. Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet. Lexington, KY.
Bright, D.A. and J. Addison. 2002. Derivation of matrix soil standards for salt under the British Columbia Contaminated Sites Regulation. Royal Roads University. Prepared for BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, BC Ministry of Transportation and Highways, BC Buildings Corp., and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Victoria, BC.
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Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). 1999. Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Winnipeg, MB.
Cowgill, U.M., and D.P. Milazzo. 1990. The sensitivity of two cladocerans to water quality variables: salinity and hardness. Arch. Hydrobiol. 120: 185-196.
Degreave, G.M., J.D. Cooney, B.H. Marsh, T.L. Pollock, N.G. Reichenbach. 1992. Variability in the performance of the 7-d Ceriodaphnia dubia survival and reproduction test: an intra- and inter-laboratory comparison. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 11: 851-866.
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Figure 2: Predicted chronic and actual (4 day and one week) toxicity levels for aquatic life exposed to NaCl. (upper and lower 95% confidence intervals based on a log-logistic fit are shown). Source: Bright and Addison (2002).
Table 2. Results of chronic toxicity tests (> 7 day duration) conducted on freshwater organisms exposed to sodium chloride (adapted from Table 7-6 in Evans and Frick 2001 and Table B.6 in Bright and Addison 2002).