The data on PAH toxicity to livestock animals are few in the literature. Some pertinent data are reviewed below.
Based on an old (1940) study, OMOE (1990) noted that an accidental ingested dose of light sweet crude oil equivalent to 40 mL/kg body weight was lethal to calves in 13 days. Ingestion of kerosene was also lethal to calves over 5 days, but at a lower dose (8 to 12 mL/kg body weight/d). Kerosene contains much less PAH than crude or refined oils; however, no information on the composition of the ingested dose was given by the investigators.
Ellenton (1982) exposed chick embryos to various fractions of Prudhoe Bay crude and fuel oil No. 2. The greatest teratogenicity was associated with the fraction containing 2-3 ringed PAHs (e.g., alkylated naphthalenes, anthracenes, phenanthrenes, fluorenes, and biphenyls) applied at the level of 2.5 mg-equivalent; 71% of the embryos treated with this fraction were abnormal. The fraction containing 4-5 ringed PAHs included alkylated chrysenes, B[a]ANTH, triphenylene, phenylanthracene, B[a]P, perylenes, and benzo[a]perylene. No significant increase in teratogenic effects was observed with this fraction even at the maximum application of 5 mg-equivalent.
No literature on the effects of individual PAHs on livestock through ingestion from diet or drinking water was found.
8.2 Criteria from other jurisdictions
PAH criteria for livestock watering were not found in the literature.
8.3 Recommended criteria
PAH criteria for livestock water supplies are not recommended due to the lack of sufficient information.