Water Title Banner Ministry Home Government of British Columbia Water Quality Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection

Water Quality

Saanich Inlet Study Report on First Nations Consultation

June 1995


Prepared for:

Water Quality Branch
Environmental Protection Department
B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks

Prepared by:

Bjorn O. Simonsen & Alison Davis
The Bastion Group Heritage Consultants

and

James Haggarty
Shoreline Archaeological Consultants Ltd.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

2.0 FIRST NATIONS CULTURE HISTORY AND SOURCES OF DATA

2.1 Saanich Inlet Culture History
2.2 The Archaeological Record
2.2.1 Introduction
2.2.2 Types of Archaeological Resources
2.2.3 Site Distribution
2.2.4 Site Age
2.2.5 General Condition of the Sites
2.2.6 Archaeological Sites and Place Name Data

3.0 RESULTS OF CONSULTATIONS AND RESEARCH

3.1 Library and Archival Research
3.2 Nature and Scope of Direct Consultations and Interviews
3.3 Results of Consultations and Interviews

4.0 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

6.0 REFERENCES CITED

APPENDIX A List of Individuals Consulted

APPENDIX B Place Names Attributed to Cultural Resource Use Sites of the Saanich, Malahat and Cowichan First Nations

APPENDIX C Species List


LIST OF FIGURES (Available in printed version only)


LIST OF TABLES


1.0 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

The present report outlines the results of a four week long consultation process and cultural resources overview study carried out within the context of the Saanich Inlet Study on southern Vancouver Island. The Saanich Inlet Study has been initiated by the Government of British Columbia to produce baseline information on the assimilative capacity of Saanich Inlet. Although this study arose largely in response to the proposed Bamberton Development Project, the various study components include an examination of natural and cultural elements within all of Saanich Inlet - as contained in the area south of Hatch Point on the west side of the inlet, and Moses Point on the east side. Among the six "key elements" of the overall study, two are of particular significance to the present report. These are:

In order to address the first of these elements, the B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks have set up a Saanich Inlet Advisory Committee which includes several First Nations members including: Chief Cyril Livingstone, Chief Elmer Henry, Chief Vern Jacks and Chief Rod Modeste. It was recognized that more in-depth consultations with First Nations individuals and groups was needed to document more fully Aboriginal uses of the inlet, and to include an overview study of existing archaeological and ethnographic information relating to the inlet. This led to the inclusion of the present study within the following terms of reference and scope:

"to interview all First Nations with an interest in Saanich Inlet; to document subsistence uses as well as cultural uses and values. Information to be documented should be based on both the testimony of band members and the archaeological record..."

Although the emphasis of the study was to be on information regarding "...marine/shoreline species, sites and related activities," the First Nations consultations and land-use component of the study was expanded to include information about cultural values and traditional-use areas beyond shoreline and riparian habitats since most future land development scenarios (i.e. Bamberton Project etc.) will have a potential for impacting land-based cultural resources and values.

The First Nations component of the Saanich Inlet Study involved a full-time researcher (Alison Davis) and a First Nations facilitator (Tom Sampson) to assist with meeting coordination and consultations. The archaeological data analysis and synthesis was carried out by Jim Haggarty of Shoreline Archaeological Consultants Ltd., of Victoria, while overall project coordination and direction was the responsibility of Bjorn Simonsen, Principal of the Bastion Group.


2.0 FIRST NATIONS CULTURE HISTORY AND SOURCES OF DATA

2.1 Saanich Inlet Culture History

The six First Nations communities consulted during this study were as follows: Tsawout Village at Saanichton Bay, located on the east side of Saanich Peninsula; Tseycum Village at Patricia Bay, located at the north east side of the Saanich Inlet; Pauquachin Village at Cole Bay, located at the mid-east side of Saanich Inlet; Tsartlip Village, located at the south east side of Saanich Inlet; Malahat Village, located on the mid-west side of Saanich Inlet; and Cowichan near Duncan (see Map 1).

The Saanich are included in the Northern Straits Salish language family and speak SENCOTEN, a Northern Straits dialect (Suttles 1990; Rozen 1985). Members of Malahat and Cowichan speak the Island Halkomelem dialect from the Island Halkomelem language family (Suttles 1990). General territorial boundaries are as follows: Saanich territory includes the Saanich Peninsula south to Mount Douglas and Mount Finlayson, and also including Mayne and Saltspring Islands (Suttles 1974; Elliot 1990; Duff 1969); Malahat territorial lines generally fall between Shawnigan Lake/Mill Bay to the north bordering with the Cowichan, and Goldstream to the south bordering with the Saanich; Cowichan territory extends south from the Shawnigan Lake/Mill Bay area, north to a point just past Maple Bay. This boundary division is somewhat arbitrary, based more on geographic considerations that on differences in culture (Barnett 1935; Jenness 1938: 1). We also note that there was considerable overlap and shared territory within the study area. Saanich Inlet was one such area.

Regarding historical subsistence pursuits, Suttles (1960; 1968) characterizes the Central Coast Salish - which comprises both Straits Salish and neighbouring Halkomelem - by four main features: a great variety of natural food resources; variation in location of these food resources; seasonal resource variation; and long-term fluctuation in resource availability. The above resource conditions caused an annual round of seasonal movements (Jenness 1938). Saanich Peninsula and Inlet served as a winter home-base for the Saanich and Malahat. During the winter, dried salmon served as the main food staple supplemented with dried berries, some fresh fish, waterfowl, intertidal shellfish and seaweed (Jenness 1938; Elliot in Poth 1990). Game, such as deer, was also major food resource (see Appendix 3 for subsistence resources). This was also a time when ceremonial activity (such as dancing and initiation rites) took place.

With spring's onset, various other marine resources were exploited such as seals, spring salmon, rock cod, grilse, halibut and herring. Land mammals, such as deer and elk, were more frequently exploited with the better weather and plant harvesting for such species as camas, would occur in May in dry, rocky shore locations (Jenness 1938; Turner and Bell 1971; Elliot in Poth 1990). A late spring movement of families out of the sheltered waters of Saanich Inlet progressed through the Gulf Islands, where fishing would occur and to Point Roberts, where the Saanich and Malahat would net sockeye and humpback salmon (Jenness 1938). Returning through the San Juan and Gulf Islands throughout August and September, the cycle ended with chum salmon as the last major resource harvested in the Goldstream area from October onward (Elliot in Poth 1990).

In 1846, the Treaty of Washington established a United States - British border, which caused an arbitrary division amongst the Central Coast Salish (Suttles 1990). The border line made it illegal for the Saanich and Malahat to venture to their traditional fishing grounds in the San Juan Islands and Point Roberts. The cultural pattern of resource exploitation was further altered with the onset of European settlement on southern Vancouver Island. A Hudson Bay Company trading post was erected in Victoria in 1843 and the company was offered the lands of Vancouver Island by the British Crown, on condition that it be opened for settlement (Duff 1969). Following the normal protocol for Crown colonies to extinguish First Nations' rights of propriety prior to settlement (Duff 1969), Sir James Douglas concluded an agreement with the Saanich on February 11, 1852, which entailed the purchase of:

"The whole of the lands situate and lying as follows, viz.: -commencing at Cowitchan Head and following the course of the Canal de Arro (Haro Strait) north-west nearly to Sanitch Point or Qua-na-sung; from thence following the course of the Sanitch Arm to the point where it terminates, and from thence by a line across country to said Cowitchan Head, the point of commencement, so as to include all the country and lands within those boundaries."

Prior to 1850, the Saanich occupied three main villages on the Saanich Peninsula as well as other settlements in the Gulf Islands and after this date, the latter groups moved to Saanichton Bay (Suttles 1951). The village at Cole Bay was originally a Mala hat settlement, but the Malahat later moved to the other side of Saanich Inlet (Duff 1969). Also, there was formerly an old village just south of Tsartlip which, around 1850, consisted of three long shed-roofed dwellings and a number of smaller ones. However, it was burnt down by northern Indians while its inhabitants were fishing near Malahat (Keddie 1991). This village was rebuilt and incorporated into the current Tsartlip Reserve.

Drastic population declines caused by such factors as smallpox epidemics, measles, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and armed conflict, occurred throughout the late 1700's to the mid 1800's (Keddie 1991). Devastating population declines resulted in major change amongst the inlet people. The incorporation of Indian Reserves took "What was left of 'Indian land'... transferred [it] to the federal government and called [them] Reserves" (Elliot in Poth 1990). The incorporation of Indian Reserves also affected drastic changes in the cultural patterns of the inlet's First Nations. Jenness (1938: 1) observed that:

"At one time or another practically every sheltered bay and nook along the southeast coast of Vancouver Island, and on the small islands adjacent to it, carried a settlement of greater or less size; but at the coming of Europeans late in the 1 8th century the Salish inhabitants of this area appear to have been divided ... ."

Although it is stipulated within the Douglas treaties that the Saanich not be withheld from their subsistence pursuits, the creation of Indian Reserves facilitated change due to the encroachment of non-Natives within traditional resource harvesting locations. The present villages of the Saanich, Malahat and Cowichan people are in the same locations today as they were at the establishment of Reserves by the McKenna-McBride Commission in 1913.

2.2 The Archaeological Record

2.2.1 Introduction

The Saanich Inlet study area contains eighty-one archaeological sites that have been formally recorded in the study area and entered in the British Columbia Archaeological Site Inventory. Cursory information on another 15 unrecorded archaeological sites has been provided by Mr. Jim Gilbert for the purposes of this study. All 96 known sites occur either directly on the Saanich Inlet shoreline or in the near upland zone adjacent to Saanich Inlet.

During the past 20 years, Saanich Inlet shorelines and adjacent near upland zones have been surveyed at a reconnaissance level by Acheson, et al (1975) and Powell (1978 and 1979). Test excavations have been conducted at several sites in the study area by Oliver (1974) and as a part of recent impact assessment studies conducted by Wilson (1987, 1988, and 1989), Eldridge (1989), and Mason and Ham (1994). Wilson (1991) also prepared a brief heritage resource overview for the Bamberton area. Except for small geographical locales associated with recent impact assessments, no intensive level archaeological surveys have been conducted in the study area. Site-specific archaeological data available for the area are highly variable due to the site recording standards employed two decades ago when most of the known sites for the area were recorded. Site survey techniques and recording standards have evolved considerably during the intervening period.

2.2.2 Types of Archaeological Resources

Site-specific archaeological data for the study area is summarized in Table 1. The types of archaeological sites present can be summarized only at a general level due to the variable nature of the information recorded on B. C. Archaeological Site Inventory forms. In summary, 79 (97.5%) of the 81 recorded sites in the study area are shell midden sites. Eight of the 79 shell midden sites are known to contain human remains. Of the two remaining sites, one is a human burial site with associated trade goods while the second site is recorded simply as a site with a depression and surface lithics present.


Table 1. Summary of Archeological Sites in the Saanich Inlet Study Area




                                                                                                           



                                            Site Dimensions      Site Description







Site  Borden   Chart  Map     Site Type     L (m)  W (m)  A      D    E     Dist  Age   Remarks            



No.   No.      (see   (see                                (m2)   (m)  (m)   ribu  (yrs)                    



               Note   Note                                                  tion                           



               1)     2)                                                    (see                           



                                                                            Note                           



                                                                            3)                             



                                                                                                           



1     DcRv-44  3441   92B/5   CULTURAL      70     20     1,400  2    2     U/I   UN    SOME EROSION       



                              MATERIAL;                                                 ALONG CREEK,       



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               HUMAN              



                              SHELL                                                     ACTIVITY.          



                              MIDDEN;                                                                      



                              HUMAN                                                                        



                              REMAINS;                                                                     



                              BURIAL.                                                                      



2     DcRv-77  3441   92B/5   CULTURAL      160    40     6,400  UN   5     U/I   UN    EXTENSIVE          



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DAMAGE, BUT        



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               MAJOR              



                              SHELL                                                     PORTIONS OF        



                              MIDDEN;                                                   THE SITE           



                              HUMAN                                                     APPEAR INTACT.     



                              REMAINS;                                                                     



                              BURIAL.                                                                      



3     DcRv-78  3441   92B/5   CULTURAL      80     10     800    UN   2     U/I   UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY ROAD,           



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               HUMAN              



                              SHELL                                                     ACTIVITY AND       



                              MIDDEN.                                                   WAVE ACTION.       



4     DdRu-1   3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      560    37     20,72  UN   2     U/I   UN    PORTIONS OF        



                              MATERIAL;                   0                             SITE HAVE          



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               BEEN               



                              SHELL                                                     EXCAVATED.         



                              MIDDEN;                                                                      



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE.                                                                     



5     DdRu-2   3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      130    20     2,600  UN   1     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY                 



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               LANDSCAPING.       



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN;                                                                      



                              HUMAN                                                                        



                              REMAINS;                                                                     



                              BURIAL.                                                                      



6     DdRu-4   3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      1,200  10     12,00  UN   3     U     UN    DISTURBED BY       



                              MATERIAL;                   0                             HOUSE              



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               DEVELOPMENT.       



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN;                                                                      



                              HUMAN                                                                        



                              REMAINS;                                                                     



                              BURIAL.                                                                      



7     DdRu-5   3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      560    12     6,720  UN   0     U     UN    SITE NOT           



                              MATERIAL;                                                 CONTINUOUS.        



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN;                                                                      



                              HUMAN                                                                        



                              REMAINS;                                                                     



                              BURIAL.                                                                      



8     DdRu-6   3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      580    40     23,20  2    3     U     UN    SLOW               



                              MATERIAL;                   0                             DETERIORATION      



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               BY HUMAN           



                              SHELL                                                     ACTIVITY.          



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



9     DdRu-7   3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      40     10     400    UN   2     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY HOUSE           



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               DEVELOPMENT        



                              SHELL                                                     AND                



                              MIDDEN;                                                   LANDSCAPING.       



                              HUMAN                                                                        



                              REMAINS;                                                                     



                              BURIAL.                                                                      



10    DdRu-17  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      UN     UN     UN     UN   0     U     UN    TOTALLY            



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DESTROYED.         



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN;                                                                      



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              ISOLATED;                                                                    



                              LITHICS;                                                                     



                              HUMAN                                                                        



                              REMAINS;                                                                     



                              BURIAL.                                                                      



11    DdRu-18  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      275    18     4,950  UN   2     U     UN    TOTALLY            



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DESTROYED BY       



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               HOUSE              



                              SHELL                                                     CONSTRUCTION       



                              MIDDEN;                                                   LANDSCAPING.       



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              LITHICS.                                                                     



12    DdRu-23  3441   92B/11  HUMAN         UN     UN     UN     UN   3     U     UN                       



                              REMAINS;                                                                     



                              BURIAL;                                                                      



                              HISTORIC;                                                                    



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              TRADE GOODS.                                                                 



13    DdRu-25  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL     180    20     3,600        2     U/I   UN    



                              MATERIAL;                                                



                              SUBSURFACE;                                              



                              SHELL                                                    



                              MIDDEN;                                                  



                              CULTURAL                                                 



                              MATERIAL;                                                



                              SURFACE;                                                 



                              ISOLATED;                                                



                              LITHICS.                                                 



14    DdRu-26  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      25     10     250         0     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



15    DdRu-47  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      45     20     900    UN   2     U/I   UN    SOME               



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DISTURBANCE        



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               BY HUMAN           



                              SHELL MIDDEN                                              ACTIVITY AND       



                                                                                        WAVE ACTION.       



16    DdRu-48  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      110    12     1,320  UN   0     U/I   UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY HUMAN           



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               ACTIVITY AND       



                              SHELL                                                     WAVE ACTION.       



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



17    DdRu-49  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      11     3      33     UN   1     U/I   UN    DAMAGE BY          



                              MATERIAL;                                                 WAVE ACTION        



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               AND POSSIBLY       



                              SHELL                                                     HOUSE              



                              MIDDEN.                                                   CONSTRUCTION.      



18    DdRu-50  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      45     7      315    UN   3     U     UN    POSSIBLE           



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DISTURBANCE        



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               BY RUNOFF.         



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



19    DdRu-51  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      UN     UN     UN     UN   1     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY HOUSE           



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION.      



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN;                                                                      



                              HUMAN                                                                        



                              REMAINS;                                                                     



                              BURIAL;                                                                      



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              LITHICS.                                                                     



20    DdRu-52  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      60     10     600    UN   2     U/I   UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DUE TO ROADS,      



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION,      



                              SHELL                                                     LANDSCAPING,       



                              MIDDEN;                                                   WAVE ACTION,       



                              CULTURAL                                                  POT HUNTING.       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE.                                                                     



21    DdRu-53  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      80     10     800    .45  10    U     820   SOME               



                              MATERIAL;                                           +/-   DISTURBANCE        



                              SUBSURFACE;                      COMPONENT 1 -      50    BY TRAIL AND       



                              SHELL                            0.25 m;                  RUNOFF.            



                              MIDDEN.                          COMPONENT 2 - 



                                                               0.25 to 0.45 m).                                                                                   



                                                                                                                                             



                                      



22    DdRu-54  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      200    2      400    UN   4     U     UN    ONLY 1 SMALL       



                              MATERIAL;                                                 PORTION            



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               INTACT, SOME       



                              SHELL                                                     DISTURBANCE        



                              MIDDEN.                                                   FROM HUMAN         



                                                                                        ACTIVITY.          



23    DdRu-55  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      33     15     495    UN   2     U/I   UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY HOUSE           



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION       



                              SHELL                                                     AND WAVE           



                              MIDDEN.                                                   ACTION.            



24    DdRu-56  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      260    30     7,800       2     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY                 



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               LANDSCAPING,       



                              SHELL                                                     BOAT DOCK,         



                              MIDDEN.                                                   EROSION,           



                                                                                        HUMANS,            



                                                                                        SLUMPAGE.          



25    DdRu-57  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      65     8      520    UN   3     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY HOUSE           



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION,      



                              SHELL                                                     HUMAN              



                              MIDDEN.                                                   ACTIVITY,          



                                                                                        SLUMPAGE.          



26    DdRu-58  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      UN     UN     UN     UN   0     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



27    DdRu-59  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      46     9      414    UN   0     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



28    DdRu-60  3441           CULTURAL      10     5      50     0    2     U/I   UN    10% INTACT.        



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



29    DdRu-61  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      50     30     1,500  1    2     U     2580  SOME               



                              MATERIAL;                                           +/-   DISTURBANCE        



                              SUBSURFACE;                                         90    BY                 



                              SHELL                                               2370  CONSTRUCTION       



                              MIDDEN.                                             +/-   ACTIVITY.



                                                                                  90



                                                                                  1,540



                                                                                  +/-                      



                                                                                  90                       



                                                                                  



                       



30    DdRu-62  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      93     10     930    UN   2     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 FROM HOUSE         



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION       



                              SHELL                                                     AND                



                              MIDDEN.                                                   LANDSCAPING.       



31    DdRu-63  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      110    10     1,100  UN   3     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY                 



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION       



                              SHELL                                                     AND                



                              MIDDEN.                                                   LANDSCAPING.       



32    DdRu-64  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      90     11     990    UN   1     U/I   UN    VERY               



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DISTURBED BY       



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               HOUSE              



                              SHELL                                                     CONSTRUCTION       



                              MIDDEN.                                                   AND EROSION.       



33    DdRu-65  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      48     17     816    UN   0     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 FROM HUMAN         



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               ACTIVITY.          



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



34    DdRu-66  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      60     7      420    UN   3     U     UN    SLUMPAGE           



                              MATERIAL;                                                 LIKELY.            



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



35    DdRu-68  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      160    12     1,920  UN   0     U     UN    ALMOST             



                              MATERIAL;                                                 COMPLETELY         



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               DESTROYED BY       



                              SHELL                                                     HOUSING AND        



                              MIDDEN.                                                   LANDSCAPING.       



36    DdRu-69  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      92     21     1,932  UN   0     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY HOUSE           



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION       



                              SHELL                                                     AND                



                              MIDDEN.                                                   LANDSCAPING.       



37    DdRu-70  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      76     14     1,064  UN   2     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY HOUSE           



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION       



                              SHELL                                                     AND                



                              MIDDEN.                                                   LANDSCAPING.       



38    DdRu-71  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      62     8      496    UN   2     U     UN    BADLY              



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DISTURBED BY       



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               HOUSE              



                              SHELL                                                     CONSTRUCTION       



                              MIDDEN.                                                   AND SLUMPAGE;      



                                                                                        MINIMAL            



                                                                                        DEPOSIT.           



39    DdRu-72  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      130    14     1,820  UN   1     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY                 



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION       



                              SHELL                                                     AND                



                              MIDDEN.                                                   LANDSCAPING.       



40    DdRv-1   3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      160    40     6,400  UN   5     U/I   UN    DISTURBED BY       



                              MATERIAL;                                                 CONSTRUCTION       



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               AND                



                              SHELL                                                     LANDSCAPING        



                              MIDDEN;                                                   AND WAVE           



                              CULTURAL                                                  ACTION.            



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              LITHICS.                                                                     



41    DdRv-2   3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      70     15     1,050  UN   2     U/I   UN    SLOW EROSION       



                              MATERIAL;                                                 AND SLUMPAGE.      



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN;                                                                      



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              LITHICS.                                                                     



42    DdRv-3   3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      100    30     3,000  UN   5     U/I   UN    SOME               



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DISTURBANCE        



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               BY HUMAN           



                              SHELL                                                     ACTIVITY AND       



                              MIDDEN;                                                   WAVE ACTION.       



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              ISOLATED;                                                                    



                              LITHICS.                                                                     



43    DdRv-4   3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      50     10     500    UN   2     U/I   UN    SOME               



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DISTURBANCE        



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               BY HUMAN           



                              SHELL                                                     ACTIVITY AND       



                              MIDDEN;                                                   WAVE ACTION.       



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              LITHICS;                                                                     



                              FIRE BROKEN                                                                  



                              ROCK.                                                                        



44    DdRv-5   3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      20     10     200    UN   0     U     UN    DISTURBED BY       



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DEVELOPMENT.       



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN;                                                                      



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              ISOLATED;                                                                    



                              HARPOON.                                                                     



45    DdRv-6   3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      80     20     1,600  UN   0     U/I   UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY WAVE            



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               ACTION.            



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN;                                                                      



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              LITHICS.                                                                     



46    DdRv-7          92B/12  CULTURAL      UN     UN     UN     UN   91    U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



47    DdRv-9   3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      60     40     2,400  UN   2     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY HOUSE           



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION,      



                              SHELL                                                     LANDSCAPING.       



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



48    DdRv-10  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      70     15     1,050  UN   2     U/I   UN    MINOR              



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DISTURBANCE        



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               BY WAVE            



                              SHELL                                                     ACTION.            



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



49    DdRv-11  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      45     20     900    UN   3     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



50    DdRv-12  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      30     15     450    UN   3     U     UN    HEAVY              



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DISTURBANCE        



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               BY HOUSING         



                              SHELL                                                     AND                



                              MIDDEN;                                                   LANDSCAPING.       



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              LITHICS.                                                                     



51    DdRv-13  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      30     10     300    UN   3     U     UN    HEAVILY            



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DISTURBED BY       



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               HOUSING            



                              SHELL                                                     DEVELOPMENT.       



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



52    DdRv-14  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      240    10     2,400  UN   UN    U     UN    DEPOSIT IS         



                              MATERIAL;                                                 SHALLOW AND        



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               DISTURBED.         



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



53    DdRv-15  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      30     10     300    UN   1     U     UN    DISTURBED BY       



                              MATERIAL;                                                 ROAD               



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION.      



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



54    DdRv-16  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      60     10     600    UN   2     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY HOUSE           



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION       



                              SHELL                                                     AND                



                              MIDDEN.                                                   LANDSCAPING.       



55    DdRv-17  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      50     10     500    UN   3     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



56    DdRv-18  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      60     20     1,200  UN   2     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



57    DdRv-19  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      16     7      112    UN   2     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



58    DdRv-20  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      6      5      30     UN   0     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY ROAD            



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               ACCESS LIKELY.     



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



59    DdRv-21  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      100    10     1,000  UN   2     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



60    DdRv-22  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      18     10     180    UN   UN    U     UN    SHALLOW            



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DEPOSIT.           



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



61    DdRv-23  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      154    15     2,310  UN   4     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



62    DdRv-24  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      25     10     250    UN   5     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



63    DdRv-25  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      15     5      75     UN   2     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



64    DdRv-26  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      20     5      100    UN   4     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



65    DdRv-27  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      17     10     170    UN   3     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



66    DdRv-28  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      90     5      450    UN   0     U     UN    NORTH END OF       



                              MATERIAL;                                                 SITE               



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               DISTURBED BY       



                              SHELL                                                     HOUSE              



                              MIDDEN.                                                   CONSTRUCTION       



                                                                                        AND                



                                                                                        LANDSCAPING.       



67    DdRv-29  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      200    20     4,000  UN   2     U     UN    EXTENSIVE          



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DAMAGE BY          



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               CONSTRUCTION       



                              SHELL                                                     MILL BAY RD.       



                              MIDDEN.                                                   AND HOUSING.       



68    DdRv-30  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      14     10     140    UN   0     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



69    DdRv-31  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      20     10     200    UN   2     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



70    DdRv-32  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      15     2      30     UN   0     U/I   UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY WAVE            



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               ACTION.            



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



71    DdRv-33  3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      80     7      560    UN   3     U/I   UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY WAVE            



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               ACTION.            



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



72    DeRu-11  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      730    52     37960  UN   4     U     UN    DISTURBANCE        



                              MATERIAL;                                                 BY HOUSE           



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               DEVELOPMENT        



                              SHELL                                                     AND CREEK;         



                              MIDDEN;                                                   EXTENSIVE          



                              CULTURAL                                                  LAND FILL.         



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE.                                                                     



73    DeRu-14  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      52     12     624    UN   2     U/I   UN    BADLY              



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DISTURBED BY       



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               ROAD               



                              SHELL                                                     CONSTRUCTION,      



                              MIDDEN;                                                   LANDSCAPING        



                              CULTURAL                                                  AND WAVE           



                              MATERIAL;                                                 ACTION.            



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              LITHICS;                                                                     



                              ANTLER;                                                                      



                              SHELL.                                                                       



74    DeRu-15  3441   92B/11  DEPRESSION;   UN     UN     UN     UN   UN    U     UN    RESIDENTIAL        



                              CULTURAL                                                  HOUSING            



                              MATERIAL;                                                 COVERS SITE        



                              SURFACE;                                                  AREA.              



                              LITHICS.                                                                     



75    DeRu-23  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      UN     UN     UN     UN   30    U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN;                                                                      



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE;                                                                     



                              LITHICS.                                                                     



76    DeRu-34  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      UN     UN     UN     UN   2     U     UN    DISTURBED BY       



                              MATERIAL;                                                 HOUSING, BOAT      



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               RAMP AND           



                              SHELL                                                     LANDSCAPING.       



                              MIDDEN;                                                                      



                              CULTURAL                                                                     



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SURFACE.                                                                     



77    DeRu-36  3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      UN     UN     UN     UN   1     U     UN                       



                              MATERIAL;                                                                    



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



78    DeRu-153 3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      220    15     3,300  UN   0     U     UN    PARTLY             



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DISTURBED.         



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



79    DeRu-157 3441   92B/11  CULTURAL      105    12     1,260  UN   2     U/I   UN    DISTURBED BY       



                              MATERIAL;                                                 WAVE ACTION.       



                              SUBSURFACE;                                                                  



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



80    DeRv-100 3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      230    20     4,600  UN   0     U/I   UN    DETERIORATION      



                              MATERIAL;                                                 FROM WAVE          



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               ACTION.            



                              SHELL                                                                        



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      



81    DeRv-113 3441   92B/12  CULTURAL      100    40     4,000  T    20    U/I   UN    HEAVY              



                              MATERIAL;                                                 DISTURBANCE        



                              SUBSURFACE;                                               BY HOUSE           



                              SHELL                                                     DEVELOPMENT.       



                              MIDDEN.                                                                      







NOTES:

1. Canadian Hydrographic Services Chart Series
2. National Topographical Series (1:50,000).

3. U = Uplands only, I = Intertidal only, U/I = Uplands/intertidal

L = Length
W = Width
A = Area
D = Depth
UN = Unknown
T = Thin


Shell midden sites can range in size from small shellfish processing sites to large village sites that were occupied on a year round basis. These types of sites can be assessed both on the basis of surface area or expression (length x width) as well as volume of cultural deposit present (length x width x depth). For the 79 shell midden sites recorded in the study area (Table 1), only surface area assessments can be made as depth measurements were infrequently recorded. The distribution of the 79 shell midden sites by surface area is presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Size distribution of shell midden sites




< 499 sq. m.              25 sites



500 - 1,999 sq. m.        28 sites



2,000 - 4,999 sq. m.      11 sites



5,000 - 9,999 sq. m.       4 sites



10,000 - 19,999 sq. m.     1 site



> 20,000 sq. m.            3 sites



Unknown                    7 sites  







TOTAL                     79 sites








In terms of surface area, 53 (74%) of the 72 shell midden sites with recorded length and width dimensions have a surface area of less than 2,000 square meters. These sites are likely camp sites that were used on a seasonal basis to exploit the wide range of resources present in the study area prior to European contact. The eight sites (11%) with surface areas exceeding 5,000 square meters are likely village sites that were occupied on a year round basis by at least a portion of the resident social unit. The 11 sites (15%) in the 2,000 to 4,999 square meter category are more difficult to assign to either category without further subsurface data. It must be stressed that village/camp assignments based on surface dimensions alone is speculative. Detailed subsurface data is required before definitive determinations can be made in this regard.

The high incidence of shell midden sites within the study area is an indication of the importance of shellfish resources as a food staple for the Aboriginal people of Saanich Inlet. Such resources (including butter clams, littleneck clams, horseclams, cockles, mussels and native oysters) have been harvested for millennia on the inlet and continue to be an important source of food and economic benefit for the First Nations people.

No stone wall or weir fish traps or rock art sites (pictograph and petroglyph sites) have been recorded in the study area. Evidence of fish trap structures associated with salmon streams in the area may have been destroyed by subsequent commercial or residential activity. It is unlikely that sites of this type were not present in the area in the past.

2.2.3 Site Distribution

The geographic location of sites in the study area (Table 1 and Map 3) have been characterized according to their distribution in the upland zone, intertidal zone, or in both upland and intertidal zones. Fifty-seven (70%) of the 81 sites recorded occur in the upland zone while 24 sites (30%) occur in the upland and adjacent intertidal zones. No sites are known to occur exclusively in the intertidal zone. The determination of an intertidal location for at least a portion of the 24 sites that are recorded as having both an upland and intertidal distribution was based primarily on comments on the site form that indicated wave action was impacting the site or that artifacts were observed in the intertidal zone in front of the site. It is possible, even likely, that a number of the 57 sites currently in the upland zone category also have an intertidal distribution. At present, there are no comments on the site forms that would indicate that any of these sites are eroding into the intertidal zone.

The distribution of archaeological sites within the Saanich Inlet study area, indicates a strong marine orientation for the First Nations people who occupy this area. The recent historic pattern of seaside village and camp settlements, water-borne transportation and a heavy reliance on marine food resources, has a long tradition that stretches back at least 2500 years (see next sub-section).

2.2.4 Site Age

Two shell midden sites, both located on the eastern shoreline of Saanich Inlet, have been radio-carbon dated. A single C14 date estimate was obtained from test excavations at DdRu 53 (820 &plusmn; 90 BP) at the head of Brentwood Bay (Wilson 1988) and three from test excavations at DdRu 61 (2,580 &plusmn; 90 BP; 2,370 &plusmn; 90 BP; and 1,540 &plusmn; 90 BP), located northeast of Henderson Point (Wilson 1989). The three dates obtained from DdRu 61 are attributed by the author to the Marpole Culture Type . The earliest date (2,580 &plusmn; 90 BP) appears to bridge the Marpole/Locarno Beach time period while the latest date (1,540 &plusmn; 90 BP) appears to bridge the Marpole/Gulf of Georgia time period. The single date from DdRu 53 (820 +/- 90 BP) is from the Gulf of Georgia time period.

2.2.5 General Condition of the Sites

It is difficult to summarize the general condition of sites in the study area solely on the basis of presently recorded information. Many of the sites, particularly those located on shorelines adjacent to commercial or residential development, have been directly impacted by the activity. In some cases, entire sites have been destroyed. Comments in some site records indicate that 10 to 90% of intact deposits have been destroyed. Very few sites in the study area appear not to have sustained some degree of damage over time, either by human or natural agencies. It is urgent that all site records be updated, including a full assessment in order to determine the actual extent of physical damage sustained since initially being recorded.

2.2.6 Archaeological Sites and Place Name Data

As previously noted, it is believed that at one time or another, practically every sheltered bay and nook along the southeast coast of Vancouver Island carried a settlement of Salish inhabitants (Jenness 1938: 1). These long-term patterns of occupation precipitated a historical record of resource use. Given that First Nations are cultures based on oral history, evidence of cultural resource use within the Saanich Inlet mainly presides in SENCOTEN and Halkomelem place names. Duff (1969: 3) refers to the significance of place names in stating: "A place name is a reminder in history, indelibly stamped on the land. To work with Indian place names is to learn something about the Indian versions of what happened in history."

Over the course of this study, place names were documented both from ethnographic and ethnolinguistic sources, as well as from First Nations individuals familiar with the Saanich Inlet (refer to Appendix 2: "Place Names attributed to Cultural Resource Use Sites of the Saanich, Malahat and Cowichan Nations; and Map 2: "Map of Study Area, Showing Place Names, Resource Gathering Sites, and Related Land-Use Areas").

There appear to be two general categories of place names relating to resource usage resulting from the overview study. The first category relates to resource use through direct translations of SENCOTEN or Halkomelem place names. For example, McKenzie Bight is known as "place of deer," (Elliot in Poth 1990: 21), and "land of deer," (Olsen in Hudson 1970: 4). The second category of place names are areas within the inlet of contemporary significance to local First Nations which do not necessarily have a known Native place name. For example, although no place name was recorded for Johns Creek, this creek an important area for ritual bathing as well as trout fishing (S. Smith; J. Gilbert, personal communication).

In recording place name data over the course of the study, a few patterns appeared to emerge regarding Aboriginal land and water uses. With regard to fishing, cod (rock and ling) is harvested along deep shorelines as well off points of land such as Will is, McCurdy, Elbow and Sheppard Points. Salmon, one of the most culturally and nutritionally significant foods amongst the inlet Nations, is harvested within Goldstream (chum) and Tod Inlet estuaries (spring). Prior to the late 1800's, Saanich, Malahat and Cowichan people would travel to the mainland, where salmon was harvested from the bountiful Fraser River. However, due to year-round subsistence and commercial harvesting within the Saanich Inlet in contemporary times, pressures on resources within the inlet have mounted. Herring fish and roe were formerly gathered in the shallow waters at Brentwood, Coles, and Patricia Bays as well as McPhail Point. However, other than a herring run reported in Patricia Bay two years ago, there has not been a significant number of herring for a number of years. Finally, tributaries are noted as being important for harvesting fresh water trout, as well as for spawning salmon.

In regard to shellfish harvesting, all areas in the inlet bearing sandy, exposed shorelines, are known to be good harvesting areas for such species as clams, oysters, and mussels. Tributary mouths are also important shellfish harvesting areas (e.g. Tod, Hagan, Spectacle, and Johns Creeks). Areas where eelgrass occurs are known to be good places to harvest crabs. It should be noted, however, that many people interviewed no longer consume shellfish due to contamination by red tides, and polluted water.

"Hunting areas" refer generally to deer ranges, although some Saanich people that were consulted, as well as various sources of ethnographic literature, referred to the hunting and trapping of elk, mink, and raccoon. Areas often mentioned include the Gowlland Range, with a particular focus on McKenzie Bight and the Malahat Range.

Plant gathering areas documented, included virtually all areas around the Saanich Inlet. For an in-depth focus on cultural plant-use by the Inlet Nations, reference should be made to Turner and Bell's Ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians (1971). Sea weed harvesting locations documented in this study were limited to Dyer rocks, Senanus Island and Coles Bay. Turner and Bell (1971) note the following seaweeds to be of significance in this region: Ulva lactuce (sea lettuce), Porphyras sp . (red lavers), possibly a Fucus ("green beach weed"), possibly Gigartina (red algae), and Nereocystis luetkeana (Mertens) Postels, and Ruprect (common kelp). The mouth of Tod Creek was known to be a good place to collect bulrush ( Typha latifolia).

With respect to religious worship within the inlet, some physical features appear to stand-out. However, the Saanich Inlet as a whole is considered by many to be a sacred place for the inlet First Nations who have a religious philosophy based upon traditional animistic beliefs. In collectively referring to the Saanich Nation, Earl Claxton Sr., and John Elliot Sr. (1994: i) state:

"...It is the belief of the Saanich tribe that we have occupied this land and have lived according to the Sacred teaching of life given to us by XALS, our Creator, since the beginning. There were no winds, animals, birds, trees, fishes or islands at that time. All of these beings were changed by XALS from Saanich people to be what they are today. ... To have connection to the land, according to ancient beliefs and teachings, is the Saanich identity."

Some religious ceremonies occurring amongst the Saanich involves ritual bathing in order to gain power and strength and for cleansing purposes. A number of small creeks flowing into Saanich Inlet have been used for such purposes. However, due to urban encroachment, which threatens privacy and has reportedly resulted in the drying-up of a few important tributaries (S. Smith; G. Bartleman; V. Jacks); and to water pollution from agricultural and industrial run-off, many sensitive areas are being destroyed. Another issue of concern is that of grave islands within Saanich Inlet. Virtually every small rocky outcrop and island within the inlet was used as a grave island either by Saanich or Malahat Nations (I. Morris; R. Modeste). Although the Northern Straits Salish are generally secretive regarding religious practices, a general consensus among those consulted was that the preservation of important ceremonial areas must be given a high priority, even if this compromises spiritual practices.

Data on the relationship between specific archaeological sites and past and present subsistence resource areas, needs to be documented in order to determine past patterns of Native settlement and subsistence usage in the study area. A key element in the process is the use of Native place name data where possible, such as from: Hudson 1970; the Saanich place name map worked on by Kevin Paul (and others previously) available in Claxton and Elliot's Reef Net Technology of the Saltwater People; Montler 1991; and Rozen 1985. A serious effort should be made to correlate Native place names with data obtained from other sources of information.


3.0 RESULTS OF CONSULTATIONS AND RESEARCH

3.1 Library and Archival Research

Due to time limitations for the completion of the present study, it was not possible to carry out an extensive search for archival and non-published sources that could aid in producing a concise picture of past Aboriginal land-use and settlement on Saanich Inlet. However, as a number of readily available published (as well as non-published) sources of information exist, which summarize much of the extant archival data, we have relied primarily on these "secondary sources" for information.

The main body of readily available ethnographic information relating to the Saanich Inlet study area stems from Barnett (1935; 1955), Jenness (1934-36; 1938), Suttles (1974; 1987; 1990), Hudson (1970), Duff (1969) and Rozen (1985). These and other resources were accessed through the Ministry of Small Business, Tourism and Culture Library, the Provincial Archives, University of Victoria's interlibrary loans, University of British Columbia's special collections, the Water Quality Branch, Aquatic Science Consultants (ASC), Kevin Paul, Saanich Native Heritage Society (SNHS), Ray Crook at the Environmental Assessment Project Office, Grant Keddie at the Royal British Columbia Museum, and the Tseycum Band office. With the exception of Rozen's work, there is a general lack of contemporary studies available reflecting First Nation's current socioeconomic situation and the changes that have occurred from the early 20th Century onward. Other useful sources of information existed within the introductory texts of Ian Wilson's archaeological assessments within the Saanich Inlet, as well as both Dave Elliot Sr. (in Poth), John Elliot Senior, and Earl Claxton Senior's curriculum books for the Saanich Nation, namely: Saltwater People ; The Saanich Year ; and Reef Net Technology of the Saltwater People .

In the project Terms of Reference, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks OSRIS (Oil Spill Response Information System) data base was specifically mentioned as an important reference source. This information was viewed at the Provincial Land Use Coordination Office (LUCO) and it was determined that the traditional resource use component of OSRIS was not as complete as the information already gathered for this study. However, the OSRIS information has been referenced for the archaeological component of the study.

Attempts were made to access specific and comprehensive land claims information for the study area. However, upon contacting the B.C. Treaty Commission, the Aboriginal Affairs liaison office for the Ministry of the Environment, the Saanich Native Heritage Society, and other sources, it appears that this information is currently not available.

Finally, place name information was retrieved from a number of literature and map sources including: Barnett (1938; 1955); Claxton and Elliot (1993; 1994); Elliot in Poth (1990); Jenness (1938); Hudson (1970); Rozen (1985). The other source of place name information came from First Nations consultations over the duration of the study (see Appendix 2; Map 2).

3.2 Nature and Scope of Direct Consultations and Interviews

Initial contact was made by letter and follow-up telephone calls to Chiefs and Band Council members at the onset of the study. Invitations were sent out to Chiefs and Councils of the Saanich First Nations to attend a meeting at Tseycum Band office, which would serve to introduce the study and the project consultants. The Malahat and Cowichan Bands were contacted separately.

On February 2nd, a meeting was held at the Tseycum Band office that included: Chief Vern Jacks of Tseycum, Chief Elmer Henry of Pauquachin, Chief Cyril Livingstone, a representative of the First Nations South Island Tribal Council, as well as village council and community members. Representatives from The Bastion Group were introduced and project protocol was discussed. Concerns about the Saanich Inlet were voiced and some of this report's recommendations were initially formulated from this meeting. It was also decided that an open house on the Saanich Inlet Study be held on one of the Saanich Reserves. A boat cruise to view various pats of the Inlet and obtain data about resource use locations was also planned. A meeting with Council members from Tsawout Reserve, also took place towards the end of the study.

The Saanich Native Heritage Society (SNHS) was also contacted and has been very helpful in supplying resources. Since the SNHS represents all four Saanich communities acting as a repository for cultural data, we are proposing that original information gathered in the course of this research project should be deposited there, with duplicate copies distributed to individual Band offices.

The Malahat Band was contacted early in the study and a brief meeting occurred with a Band Councilor (Robert Harry) mid-way through the study. An additional meeting occurred with Malahat Chief Rod Modeste and Robert Harry, where concerns were discussed regarding the future of Saanich Inlet, with a strong focus on the proposed Bamberton development. The Cowichan Band was contacted and a meeting took place with two Council representatives (Wes Modeste and Eamon Gaunt). However, no further consultations have occurred.

An Open House event occurred on February 15 at the recreation hall at Pauquachin Reserve and was attended by Alan Calder and Jason Austin of the Water Quality Branch, Bjorn Simonsen and Alison Davis of the Bastion Group, and part-time by Fraser Smith, Simon Smith, and Tom Sampson of Tsartlip and Chief Vern Jacks of Tseycum. Given the short notice, a good turn-out occurred and several requests were made to have additional open house events at all First Nations communities concerned with the Saanich Inlet. Interest was also expressed in having information available and disseminated to the LAU, WELNEW Tribal school at Tsartlip and to other interest groups.

A boat cruise on Saanich Inlet took place on February 22, 1995 aboard the "Sea Jac", a 54' charter vessel. The cruise took place for two reasons: first, to learn about site-specific resource locations within the inlet; second, to view first-hand the extent and scope of development around the inlet. A total of eight Saanich First Nations individuals came on the cruise and much new information was obtained.

A 1:40,000 hydrographic base map of the inlet was used as a reference tool when interviewing and a map containing archaeological site locations was usually taken along for information purposes. Questions focused on: past and present resource usage with in the Saanich Inlet; personal observations of this area's change over time, and concerns thereof; and future visions for Saanich Inlet.

Interviews took place both within group and individual situations almost exclusively with members of the Saanich Nation with the exceptions of Band Council members from Malahat and Cowichan. Also, an interview took place with Jimmy Gilbert, a non-Aboriginal, long-term Inlet resident who is very knowledgeable about Saanich Aboriginal history and traditions (See Appendix 1 for list of informants).

3.3 Results of Consultations and Interviews

Information from library and archival sources was augmented by direct interviews and consultations with Saanich elders, as well as data obtained from other researchers and knowledgeable individuals. We note here, that much of the data collected by past ethnolinguistic researchers within the study area, has focused on language, mythology and social organizations and is, by its nature, of limited use in attempting to reconstruct past land and water use. Another limiting factor of past research is a bias towards male activities and concentrating on only one or two elders for information. It is important to gather information from a broader spectrum of the Aboriginal community, recognizing that perceptions and knowledge about past activities and lifeways varies from person to person.

It was generally observed by all First Nations individuals contacted during the Saanich Inlet Overview Study, that they traditionally relied almost exclusively on the natural resources of Saanich Inlet and its surrounding upland areas for their subsistence, economic and cultural well-being. Subsistence resources included fresh and saltwater fish, octopus, seals, sea urchins, whales, shellfish, seaweed, land mammals, waterfowl, plant foods and medicinal species. Heavy reliance upon the natural resources of Saanich Inlet is evident in the amount of SENCOTEN and Halkomelem place names which correspond to an economic resource gathering activity.

A common observation among Saanich people interviewed, was the incredible amount of change that has occurred over a relatively short time period within the inlet. Apart from the aforementioned sanctions placed upon First Nations, such as restricted land access, some of the major changes which have occurred during the past fifty years include:

  1. pollution of the water bodies and lands around Saanich Inlet
  2. human encroachment in the form of development, resource extraction, and general invasion of privacy at sacred places and in other traditional-use areas
  3. lack of employment due to loss of subsistence activities within the inlet and other activities such as a viable commercial fishery.

The effects of pollution on shellfish resources - whereby 12 out of 15 major clam areas have been closed for harvesting - is a dramatic example of how a major traditional food resource for the Inlet's Aboriginal people, has been lost. Sacred bathing pools have been polluted or put off limits by development and children are dissuaded from swimming in the ocean. There is also a perception by most people interviewed that oil leakage from freighters may be polluting beaches in Brentwood Bay and that most of the inlet's marine resources are in steady decline.

Traditional food and other natural resource gathering activities are no longer possible due to lack of access to many hunting and gathering areas - as a result of land alienation and private property restrictions. Fraser Smith has told us that he was out fishing on the inlet at least every second day last summer but failed to catch any salmon. This never occurred in the past when salmon and other fish species were plentiful.

People are concerned that the traditional structure of Saanich culture is threatened due to the loss of cultural traditions associated with natural resource use, spiritual activities and lost opportunities for aboriginal youths to experience traditional practices.


4.0 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The often-heard statement from First Nations people that culture and the land are inextricably bound together, is certainly true for the Saanich Inlet Study area. Here, both in the past and in the present, traditional cultural activities such as hunting, fishing, shellfish gathering, food and medicinal plant gathering, spiritual practices and a host of other traditions are focused on the land and the sea. Yet, as has been shown in the foregoing sections of this report, it is almost impossible for First Nations people today to continue these activities due to land alienation, lack of free access, loss of natural resources and other effects of land and marine developments over the past century, or more. Much of the 5 - 6,000 year old history of the people of the inlet - in the form of archaeological sites - has been lost to development and natural erosion. Small islands that once served as sacred grave sites have been developed, or desecrated by vandals and curiosity seekers.

It is little wonder that there is a high level of anxiety and anger among the inlet people, due in large part, to a feeling that the traditional culture has been lost as a result of land alienation and disappearing natural resources. During our discussions with the First Nations people of the inlet, numerous individuals suggested that there should be a complete moratorium on land development and commercial marine harvesting within the inlet, pending additional studies of the effects of future development on First Nations traditional land-use and archaeological resources. Continued land development is also incompatible with the continuation of land claims and future treaty negotiations.

Of major concern amongst First Nations people is the problem of multiple government jurisdiction relating to development activity on the inlet. Four levels of government (Federal, Provincial, Regional and Municipal) presently control such activity, but there is little, or no, coordination or standardization of development controls. It is hoped that the present Saanich Inlet Study can act as a catalyst in the establishment of a plan to restrict and control development on the inlet and adjacent lands that could, among other things, preserve and protect areas of importance to a continuance of traditional First Nations land-uses.

Of special significance within the study area are the numerous remains of aboriginal camps, villages, processing areas and other features which make up the archaeological record of the inlet people. Eighty-one archaeological sites are recorded formally in the Saanich Inlet study area. Information on an additional 15 archaeological sites was gathered as a result of this study. The archaeological record for the study area has been summarized. This data is highly variable, both in terms of the quantity and quality of archaeological information contained on B.C. Archaeological Site Inventory forms. Certain limitations, therefore, are inherent in any subsequent use made of the archaeological record in this region. However, the study area is rich in archaeological information and every effort must be made to ensure that the archaeological record is protected and thereby preserved for future generations.


5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendations are based, in part, on our own analysis of the results of the Aboriginal Consultation and Cultural Heritage component of the Saanich Inlet Study, as well as on a consensus of recommendations that were expressed by the First Nations people who had a direct involvement in the project. These are, as follows:


6.0 REFERENCES CITED

Acheson, S., S. Cassidy, and C. Claxton
1975 Report of the archaeological survey of the southwestern Gulf of Georgia. Report on file, B.C. Archaeology Branch, Victoria.
Barnett, Homer G.
1938 The Coast Salish of Canada. American Anthropologist 40: 118-140.
1955 The Coast Salish of British Columbia . University of Oregon, Eugene.
Claxton, Earl Sr., and John Elliot Sr.
1993 The Saanich Year . Saanich School Board and Saanich School District # 63, Brentwood Bay.
1994 Reef Net Technology of the Saltwater People . Saanich Indian School Board, Brentwood Bay.
Douglas, James
1853 Private papers of Sir James Douglas, K.C.B., Second Series. Available at the Provincial Archives, Victoria.
Duff, Wilson.
1969 The Fort Victoria Treaties in B.C. Studies No.3, Fall, Vancouver. pp. 3-57.
Eldridge, M.
1989 Heritage Impact Assessment of a Proposed Subdivision of Lands End Properties, Saanich Peninsula. Report on file, B.C. Archaeology Branch, Victoria.
Hudson, Douglas
1970 Some Geographical Terms of the Saanich Indians of British Columbia . With information from: Richard Harry; Ernie Olsen; Christopher Paul; and Louis Pelke. Unpublished manuscript, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.
Keddie, Grant
1991 The Archaeological Remains of Tod Inlet: An Evaluation of Lands owned by Fama Holdings Ltd. for Regional Park Purposes . Royal British Columbia Museum.
Jenness, Diamond
1934 Coast Salish Field Notes . Unpublished field notes collected from 1936 Saanich elders. Available in Special Collections, U.B.C., Vancouver.
1938 The Saanich Indians of Vancouver Island. Unpublished manuscript. Available in type in Special Collections, U.B.C., and Provincial Archives, Victoria.
Mason, A. R. and L.C. Ham
1994 An Archaeological Resource Assessment of the Victoria International Airport, Sidney, B.C. Report prepared for Airports Group, Transport Canada, Vancouver.
Montler, Timothy
1991 Saanich, North Straits Salish. Classified Word List.Canadian Ethnological Service, Paper No. 119, Mercury Series, Canadian Museum of Civilization .
Poth, Janet
1983 Saltwater People as told by Dave Elliot, Sr. A Resource Book for the Saanich Native Studies Program . School District No. 63 (Saanich).
Powell, G.R.
1978 Archaeological site Inventory and Testing in the Victoria Region. Report on file, B.C. Archaeology Branch, Victoria.
1979 Archaeological Site Inventory in the Victoria Region. Report on file, B.C. Archaeology Branch, Victoria.
Rozen, David L.
1985 Place Names of the Island Halkomelem Indian People. MA Thesis, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of British Columbia.
Suttles, Wayne
1951 The Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Haro and Rosario Straits. Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington.
1989 Coast Salish Essays. University of Washington Press.
1990 Central Coast Salish in Wayne Suttles ed., Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 7: Northwest Coast . Smithsonian Institution. Washington. pp. 453-475.
Turner, Nancy Chapman and Marcus Bell
1971 "The Ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians of Vancouver Island." J. of Economic Botany . Vol. 25, No.1, Jan-March, pp. 63-104.
Wilson, I.R.
1987 Excavation of a burial Cairn DeRu 17, Piers Island, B.C. Report on file, B.C. Archaeology Branch, Victoria.
1988 Archaeological Testing of DdRu 53, Brentwood Bay. Report on file, B.C. Archaeology Branch, Victoria.
1989 Archaeological Testing of DdRu 61, Thomson Cove. Report on file, B.C. Archaeology Branch, Victoria.
1991 Heritage Resource Overview, Bamberton Housing Subdivision, East Coast Vancouver Island. Report on file, B.C. Archaeology Branch, Victoria.

APPENDIX A




List of Individuals Consulted







Tseycum     Chief Vern Jacks, 



            Tillie Jacks, 



            Gabe Jack, 



            Joeseph Bill, 



            and Lydia Pelke.







Tsartlip    Sammy Sam, 



            Tom Sampson, 



            Fraser Smith, 



            Simon Smith, 



            Kevin Paul, 



            Gabe Bartleman, 



            Adelynne Claxton, 



            Ivan Morris, 



            Philomena James, 



            Deanna Daniels, 



            John Sampson, 



            and Derek Sampson.







Pauquachin  Chief Elmer Henry, 



            Diana Henry, 



            and Herman Henry.







Tsawout     Harvey Underwood, 



            Earl Claxton Jr., 



            Cecelia Thomas, and  



            Gus Underwood.







Malahat     Chief Rod Modeste



            and Robert Harry.







Cowichan    Wes Modeste and 



            Eamen Gaunt.







Others     Chief Cyril Livingstone, 



           Jimmy Gilbert, 



           Grant Keddie, 



           Laurie Acheson, 



           and Dr. Nancy Turner.

APPENDIX B

Place Names Attributed to Cultural Resource Sites of the Saanich, Malahat and Cowichan First Nations (This Appendix is available in the printed copy of this report only).


APPENDIX C: Species List

Fish Species








Oncorhynchus keta            chum/dog salmon



Oncorhynchus kisutch         coho salmon



Oncorhynchus nerka           sockeye salmon



Oncorhynchus tshawytscha     chinook/spring salmon



Oncorhynchus gorbuscha       humpback/pink salmon



Clupea harengus pallasi      herring



Anchoa sp.                   anchovies



Sebastes sp.                 rock cod



Ophiodon elongatus           ling/green cod



Hippoglossus stenolepis      halibut



Gymnachirus sp.	             "flatfish" - sole



Perca sp.                    perch



Squalus oncanthias           dogfish



Sculpin sp.                  bullhead



Octopus dofleini             octopus



Cetorhinus maximus           basking shark



Oncorhynchus mokiss          rainbow trout



Oncorhynchus clarki          cutthroat trout



Osmerus sp.                  smelt











Shellfish








Saxidomus giganteus          butter clam



Tapes japonica               manilla clam



Clinocardium nuttalli        cockle clam



Crassostrea gigas            Pacific (Japanese) oyster



Ostrea lurida                native oyster



Balunus sp.                  barnacles



Mytilas sp.                  mussels



Cancer sp.                   crab



Strongylocentrotus sp        sea urchin



Parastichopus californicus   sea cucumber







Marine Mammals








Orcinus orca                 killer whale



Megaptera novaeangliae       humpback whale



Phocoenoides sp.             porpoise



Phoca vitulina               harbour seal



Eumetopias jubatas           Steller sea lion



Land Mammals








Odocoileus sp.               deer



Cervus elaphus               elk



Canis lupis                  wolf



Oreamnos americanus          mountain goat



Mistela vison                mink



Procyon lotor                raccoon



Birds and Waterfowl








Mergus sp.                   merganser



Podiceps sp. and/or          grebe            



Aechmophorus sp.



Phalocrocorax sp.            cormorant



Crovus sp.                   crow



Larus sp.                    seagull



Tyto alba and/or             owl (white)



Bubo virginianus



Dendragapus obscurus         blue grouse







Flora








Ulva lactuce                 sea lettuce



Typha latifolia              bulrush



Zostera sp.                  eelgrass



Camassia sp.                 camas



Lomatium nudicaule           Indian consumption plant



Rubus spectabilis            salmonberry



Gautheria shallon            salal



Vaccinium sp.                huckleberry



Thuja plicata                western red cedar



Taxus brevifolia             western yew



Spirea sp.                   spirea



Populus ssp. trichocarpa     black cottonwood



Alectoria sarmentosa         common witch's hair lichen








DOCUMENT INFORMATION

Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data

Simonsen, Bjorn O., 1940-
Saanich Inlet study. Report on First Nations Consultation
Includes bibliographical references: p.
ISBN 0-7726-2581-6
1. Saanich Inlet Region (B.C.) - Antiquities 2. Indians of
North America - British Columbia - Saanich Inlet Region -
Antiquities. 3. Land use, Rural - British Columbia - Saanich
Inlet Region. 4. Saanich Inlet (B.C.) I. Davis, Alison. II.
Haggarty, James C., 1943- . III. BC Environment. Water
Quality Branch. IV. Title.
E78.B9S55 1995 971.11'28 C95-960304-2

Cover Design:

Domo Communications Management

Coast Salish Design:

"Thunderbird and Salmon"
Roddy Albert Modeste Sr.
Malahat First Nation

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Thanks are extended to the many people who assisted in this project and made it possible, including:




Tseycum                Chief Vern Jacks, 



                       Tillie Jacks, 



                       Gabe Jack, 



                       Joseph Bill, and 



                       Lydia Pelke.







Tsartlip               Tom Sampson, 



                       Fraser Smith, 



                       Simon Smith, 



                       Sammy Sam, 



                       Kevin Paul, 



                       Gabe Bartleman, 



                       Adelynne Claxton, 



                       Philomena James, 



                       Ivan Morris, 



                       John Sampson, 



                       Derek Sampson, and 



                       Deanna Daniels.







Pauquachin             Chief Elmer Henry, 



                       Diana Henry, and 



                       Herman Henry.  







                       Also, thanks to Pauquachin for the 



                       use of their recreation centre on 



                       February 15, 1995.







Tsawout                Harvey Underwood, 



                       Earl Claxton Jr., 



                       Cecelia Thomas, and 



                       Gus Underwood.







Malahat                Chief Rod Modeste and 



                       Robert Harry.







Cowichan               Wes Modeste and 



                       Eamen Gaunt.







First Nations of       Chief Cyril Livingstone



South Island Tribal 



Council                                     







Others                  Laurie Acheson, 



                        Jason Austin, 



                        Randy Bouchard, 



                        Alan Calder, 



                        Ray Crook, 



                        Jimmy Gilbert,  



                        Martyn Glassman, 



                        Don Howes, 



                        Ingrid James, 



                        Ben Kangasniemi, 



                        Grant Keddie, 



                        Dario Stucchi, and 



                        Dr. Nancy Turner








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Last updated: August 8, 2001