adaptive management feedback - the ability to generate
meaningful effectiveness monitoring data and use it to
make ongoing project and program adjustments where required.
alluvial - (see fluvial).
biogeoclimatic classification - a hierarchical classification
system of ecosystems that: integrates regional, local,
chronological factors, and combines climatic, vegetation,
and site factors (Meidinger and Pojar 1991).
biogeoclimatic zone - a large geographic area with a
broadly homogeneous macroclimate. It has characteristic
webs of energy flow and nutrient cycling and typical
patterns of vegetation and soil (Meidinger and Pojar
1991). Refer to Appendix 3 for biogeoclimatic zones of
channel - a waterway of discernible extent that continuously
or periodically contains moving water, and has a defined
bed and banks.
climax community - the final and relatively stable stage
in plant succession for a given environment where the
species present perpetuate themselves in the absence
coarse woody debris (CWD) - sound and rotting logs and
stumps that provide habitat for small terrestrial animals
and their predators. Large woody debris is one type of
CWD, but with a primarily aquatic rather than terrestrial
canopy - the overhead branches and leaves of vegetation.
fish habitat - spawning grounds and nursery, rearing,
food supply and migration areas on which fish depend
directly or indirectly in order to carry out their life
processes. Habitat can be located instream (main river
or stream system) or off-channel (small tributaries or
wet areas; includes off-channel and instream habitat).
floodplain - areas of flat land bordering a watercourse.
They are frequently at or near the same elevation as
the top of the streambanks and are subject to flooding.
fluvial - refers to materials transported and deposited
by running water.
Practices Code (Code) - specifies planning and
operational guidelines for each phase of timber harvesting
operations around streams, lakes and wetlands in the
province of British Columbia.
free growing - a term used to describe a stand of trees
that has grown sufficiently above the grass and shrub
level, ensuring its survival (and free growth) against
competition from other vegetation.
gully - a long, linear depression incised into steep
hillslopes, where the overall gradient is at least 25%,
with a channel confined in a V-notch ravine with banks
higher than 3 m, sideslopes steeper than 40%, and an
overall length greater than 100 m.
intermittent stream - stream with a defined channel,
but dry for periods of the year, usually the late summer
and fall period of low precipitation and no snowmelt.
large woody debris (LWD) - pieces of dead wood, having
a diameter of 10 cm or larger over a minimum 2 m length,
that intrudes into the stream channel; important for
providing fish habitat and in influencing channel morphology.
mesic - intermediate or medium moisture conditions;
that is, neither very wet nor very dry. The term refers
to habitats that have neither an excess nor a shortage
of water, relative to the existing extremes in a given
nurse-tree shelterwood - a nurse-tree shelterwood system
manages different species in two different layers. The
tree canopy shelters and provides a more suitable environment
for establishment and juvenile growth of the young regeneration.
The overstorey can be gradually removed, or removed all
at once when the regeneration is developed enough to
withstand open site conditions. Where applicable, this
system enables shade-intolerant and shade-tolerant tree
species to be managed on the same site for a period of
time. An example of this is the managing of a redcedar
understorey with a cottonwood or alder overstorey.
overstorey - all trees growing in a forested ecosystem,
regardless of height or trunk size.
perennial stream - a stream that has flowing water all
rehabilitation - returning to a state of health and
useful activity. In this manual, rehabilitation means
producing conditions more favourable to particular groups
of organisms, especially the economically-valuable or
aesthetically-desired components of the native flora
and fauna, without necessarily returning the system to
its undisturbed condition.
restoration - bringing back to a former or original
condition (e.g., the pre-logging state). In this manual
the term restoration is meant to include rehabilitation.
riparian area - an area of land adjacent to a stream,
river, lake or wetland, containing vegetation that, due
to the presence of water, is distinctly different from
the vegetation of adjacent upland areas.
riparian management areas (RMA) - areas around streams
and wetlands that consist of a riparian management zone,
and where required by the regulations, a reserve zone
within which constraints to forest practices are applied.
Its width is determined by the class of stream or wetland.
Refer to tables 1 and 2 in the Riparian
Management Area Guidebook.
riparian management zone (RMZ) - the zone within the
RMA and outside the riparian reserve zone where limited
harvesting is permitted. As with the RRZ, its width is
determined by the class of stream or wetland. Refer to
tables 1 and 2 in the Riparian
Management Area Guidebook.
riparian reserve zone (RRZ) - the zone within the RMA
immediately bordering the stream or wetland where no
timber harvesting is permitted. Its width is determined
by the class of stream or wetland. Refer to tables 1
and 2 in the Riparian
Management Area Guidebook.
riparian vegetation type (RVT) - classification of vegetation
based on stand structure and species composition.
riparian zone - land adjacent to the normal high water
line in a stream, river, lake or pond and extending to
the portion of land influenced by the presence of the
adjacent ponded or channeled water.
silviculture - managing forest vegetation by controlling
stand establishment, growth, composition, quality and
structure, for the full range of forest resource objectives.
silviculture prescription (SP) - a site-specific plan
that describes the forest management objectives for an
area. SPs must be consistent with any higher level plan
that encompasses the area to which the prescription applies.
The SP prescribes the method for harvesting the exisiting
forest stand, and a series of silviculture treatments
that will be carried out to establish a free growing
(above brushline) crop of trees in a manner that accommodates
other resource values identified. Subsequent documents,
including cutting authorities and logging plans, must
follow the intent and meet the standards stated in the
site series - a method of site classification defined
by using late seral or climax vegetation within a biogeoclimatic
subzone. Each site series is given a two-digit numeric
code that relates to its position on the relative moisture
and nutrient scales. This term forms the basis of much
of the MOF field guides for site identification and interpretation
in forest regions (see MOF Land Management Handbook references
in References section).
small organic debris (SOD) - organic material such as
leaves, detritus, terrestrial insects, twigs that enter
the stream and become part of the aquatic food chain.
snags - standing dead trees that provide essential habitat
soil horizon - a layer of soil that is distinguished
from adjacent layers by characteristic physical properties
such as structure, colour or texture. The letters A,
B and C are used to designate soil horizons. The A horizon
is the upper part (usually organic) and is the zone of
leaching minerals and nutrients. The B horizon lies under
the A and consists of weathered material with accumulated
minerals and nutrients. The C horizon under the B is
the layer of unconsolidated, weathered parent material.
Not all horizons are present in all soils.
stand management prescription (SMP) - a site-specific
plan describing the nature and extent of silviculture
activities planned for a free growing stand of trees
to facilitate the achievement of specified or identified
social, economic and environmental objectives. An SMP
was created under the Code to complement the silvilculture
prescription by specifying a full-rotation plan or strand
strategy for an individual stand.
stand structure - the vertical arrangement and stocking
of trees within individual crown classes (canopy layers)
in a stand.
Stand structure descriptions:
stream- the watercourse formed when water flows between
continuous definable channel boundaries. Flow in the
stream channel may be perennial or intermittent.
stream class - method of classifying
streams based on size, gradient and presence of fish.
system is based on the Code and ranges from S1 to S6.
See Table 1 in text for breakdown of classification.
stream reach - relatively homogenous section of a stream
having a sequence of repeating structural characteristics
(or processes) and fish habitat types.
streamside - the land, and the vegetation it supports,
immediately in contact with the stream or sufficiently
close to it to have a major influence on, or to be influenced
by, its ecological character.
succession - the gradual change that occurs in the vegetation
of a given area of the earth's surface, or when one community
succeeds the other.
understorey - shrubs (< 2 m in height), herbs or
mosses growing in a forest.
watershed - the land on which water falls from the atmosphere
and moves downslope to other locations. Each watershed
is a catchment area divided from the next watershed by
topographic features, most noticeably ridgetops. Watersheds
are the natural landscape units from which hierarchical
drainage networks are formed.
wetland - a swamp, marsh or other similar area that
supports natural vegetation that is distinct from the
adjacent upland areas. More specifically, a wetland is
an area where a water table is at, near, or above the
surface or where soils are water-saturated for a sufficient
length of time that excess water and resulting low oxygen
levels are principal determinants of vegetation and soil
wildlife tree - a standing dead or live tree with special
characteristics that provide valuable habitat for the
conservation or enhancement of wildlife.
windthrow - where trees are blown over due to wind conditions,
in situations where harvest of adjoining forest has resulted
in loss of wind protection within the remaining forest.
Trees in narrow riparian buffer strips can be susceptible
to windthrow conditions, especially in areas of high
winds and water saturated soils.
xeric - dry moisture conditions.