Region 2 Species

Black-tailed Deer

The black-tailed deer is well represented in Region 2, by being the most common and occurring throughout the region. Deer are the most common large ungulate in Region 2, and are extremely popular for both hunting (big game species) and non-hunting use. There are around 17,000-29,000 estimated black-tailed deer in Region 2. Major limiting factors for deep populations within Region 2 are felt to be suitable winter range availability, winter severity and to a less extent, predation.

Please view the Wildlife-Human Conflicts Prevention Strategy for this species.


  • To maintain deer population concentrations and population sized within the region.
  • To provide deer in their natural habitat for non-hunting recreation, primarily viewing.
  • To provide deer hunting recreation by maintaining hunting seasons in areas where a harvestable surplus of deer exists.
  • To provide individuals suffering property loss from deer depredation with advice pertaining to the prevention of this damage.
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Black Bears

Black bears are dormant during the winter months, and therefore not dependent upon the availability of suitable winter range for survival. They have very few natural enemies (ie. Grizzly bears) and have the ability to thrive in a wide variety of habitats. They are most attracted to forested areas where e vegetation has recently been altered, by either natural or artificial means, (ie. slides, natural burns, logging). Because of the above, black bears are very successful, and occur throughout the entire region. They are the second most popular big game quarry within the region in terms of hunter interest and hunter effort. There are an estimated number of 5,000.

It is because of the black bears- opportunistic and omnivorous eating habits and lack of natural enemies that is runs into problems with man. Black bears adapt very readily to utilizing food sources provided by man, and quickly lose their fear. This often results in incidences of property damage and/or concern for human safety. Black bear-human conflicts are the most common problem wildlife situation if Region 2.

Please view the Wildlife-Human Conflicts Prevention Strategy for this species.


  • Maintain black bear populations in wilderness areas at or close to current levels.
  • Remove major attractants which cause black bear-human conflicts in wilderness areas.
  • Where necessary, control individual black bears where a bona fide threat to human safety or property exists.
  • Provide black bears in their natural habitat for non-hunting recreation.
  • Provide black bear hunting creation by maintaining hunting seasons in areas where a harvestable surplus of bears exists.
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Most dangerous wildlife species inhabiting Region 2, occasionally attack domestic livestock, but of far greater concern is the possibility of attacks on humans. Cougars frequent a wide variety of habitat types, constantly moving search of prey. Viable cougar populations occur in every management unit in Region 2 except MU 2-4, where the species occurs only rarely. Considered a big game animal, and cannot be trapped. Regional hunting effort is concentrated in MU's 2-2, 2-3 and the southern parts of 2-8, 2-9 and 2-10. Hunting effort in the remained of the region is minimal.

Please view the Wildlife-Human Conflicts Prevention Strategy for this species.


  • 250 total is the estimated number of population in wilderness areas of Region 2. This is to ensure continued existence of the species, and to maintain existing recreation levels associated with cougars.
  • Where necessary, destroy individual cougars where a bona fide threat to human life or properly exists, to protect human life and property.
  • Remove populations from areas having a history of cougar-human conflicts, to prevent control programs for cougar within municipal boundaries, to reduce the incidence of cougar-human conflicts in areas of high human density.
  • Provide cougar hunting recreation by maintaining hunting seasons in areas where a harvestable surplus of cougar exists.
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The bobcat is distributed throughout all of Region 2, with largest populations occurring in the northern and south-eastern portions of the region. The current minimum population estimates for bobcats in the region is 600 animal. The species is secretive by nature and is very rarely sighted by casual observers. Bobcats rarely pretty on agricultural animals within the region, and are not considered a problem wildlife species. This species is managed primarily as a game animal in MU's 2-2, 2-3 and the southern parks of 2-9 and 2-10. Within the rest of the region, management emphasis will be placed on the commercial use of this species as a fur bearer.

Please view the Wildlife-Human Conflicts Prevention Strategy for this species.


  • To maintain bobcat populations within the region at or close to present levels. This objective is required to ensure the continued existence of the species, and to provide for current creational use and trapper harvest on the species.
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Birds (Waterfowl and Raptors)

In concert with the Copper River delta in Alaska and the wetlands of California, the Fraser River delta is a link in a chain of vital bird habitats between breeding grounds in Canada, Alaska and the eastern USSR and wintering areas in the southern USA and Central and South America. It also supports the highest densities of waterbirds, shorebirds and raptors in Canada in winter.

The Fraser Valley is an important spot for migration, as birds stop in and fly over. In an average year, about 500,000 waterbirds use the delta, in some years, as many as 1.5 millions birds - 300,000-750,000 waterfowl, 200,000-600,000 shorebirds and 60,000 gulls - migrate through the Fraser River delta. In the winter, about 135,000 waterbirds use the delta. No other site north of California on the Pacific coast has such large bird populations in winter.

In addition the Lower Mainland, especially the Fraser Valley, is an important area for Raptors, as wintering and breeding occurs here and contributes to the overall population.

For more information please visit the Canadian Wildlife Services website.


  • To maintain cultivated fields for current populations of waterfowl.
  • To maintain and create other forms of protection including parks, private land holdings and restrictions imposed y government environmental review programs for proposed developments.
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Are well established in areas of the region, and have adapted well to human settlement and survives in good numbers in agricultural areas. An estimated of the regional wilderness coyote population is 3,500 to 4,000 animals. There are probably an additional 1,500 to 2,000 in agricultural or agricultural fringe areas in the lower Fraser Valley.

Please view the Wildlife-Human Conflicts Prevention Strategy for this species.


  • Maintain coyote population at or near current estimated levels. The primary purpose of this objective is to maintain the species and provide opportunities for hunting and non-hunting recreation in areas where there is no direct conflict with man.
  • Where necessary, destroy individual coyotes or groups of coyotes where a threat to private property exists.
  • Reduce coyote predation on livestock by encouraging the development and implementation of better methods of animal husbandry.
  • Provide trappers with information on successful methods for trapping coyotes. This information is required to increase the effectiveness of coyote trapping activities within the Lower Mainland Region. Ineffective trapping techniques merely teach coyotes to be wary of traps, thus reducing the effectiveness of required control programmes.
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Mountain Goats

Mountain goats are well represented within Region 2 even though they are not frequently encountered by casual observers. The estimated population is close to 1,000-1,700. The species inhabits remote alpine areas during the summer months and descends to lower elevations only during the winter months. However, even at lower elevations preferred habitat is rugged, inaccessible terrain. The overall regional goat population is made up of a number of district herds confined to specific watersheds or parts of watersheds. Unfortunately, the ecology of mountain goats in coast environments is not well understood.


  • To maintain mountain goat population concentrations and population sizes within the region.
  • To provide mountain goats in their natural habitat for non-hunting recreation. It is recognized that opportunities for non-consumptive recreation activities relating to mountain goats are provided in provincial parks within Region 2 (i.e. Garibaldi Park)
  • To provide mountain goat hunting recreation by maintaining open hunting seasons where a harvestable surplus of goats exists.
  • To encourage inter-agency resource management through coordinated resource planning for areas utilized by mountain goats.

Notice for Mountain Goat Hunters DVD
Mountain goats are very sensitive to overharvest, and even a small harvest of adult females can tip the balance between increasing and declining populations. The Wildlife Program is attempting to address this concern through voluntary compliance among hunters: hunters are requested to select a male mountain goat. A DVD "Is it a Billy or is it a Nanny?" is available from regional or Victoria MoE offices or the B.C. Wildlife Federation to help you learn more about billy selection.

For more information on how to select a billy, please click here.